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Academic Vocabulary in Use is the perfect study aid for anyone using English for their academic work. Ideal for students of any discipline, from engineers or social scientists to business students and lawyers, it covers all the key vocabulary they will come across in academic textbooks, articles, lectures and seminars. The book is designed for students at good intermediate level and above as well as those preparing for IELTS and other university entrance examinations.
- 50 easy-to-use two-page units with clear explanations of new vocabulary on the left page and a variety of practice exercises on the right.
- Presents new words and expressions in real-life academic contexts including extracts from lectures, presentations, essays, tables and graphs.
- Includes an extra 'Reading and vocabulary' section with longer texts tr give you more practice of key vocabulary.
- Has a comprehensive answer key and a phonemic transcriptiors of keywords in the index to help with pronunciation.
- Contains a handy 'Reference section' with notes on formal and informal usage, British, Irish and North American vocabulary differences and spelling variations.
- Gives you the most useful and frequently-used academic vocabulary based on the Cambridge International Corpus and established academic wordlists.

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Vocabulary in

50 units of
and practice

Self-study and
classroom use

Michael McCarthy
Felicity OrDell



Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore, Sao Paulo, Delhi
Cambridge University Press
The Edinburgh Building, Cambridge CB2 8RU, UK
Information on this title:

© Cambridge University Press 2008
This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception
and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,
no reproduction of any part may take place without the written
permission of Cambridge University Press.
First published 2008
Produced by Kamae Design, Oxford
Printed in the United Kingdom at the University Press, Cambridge

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library
ISBN-13 978-0-521-68939-7 paperback

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or
accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in
this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites
is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.



To the student and the teacher


Working with academic vocabulary

What is special about academic English?
Key nouns
Key verbs
Key adjectives
Key adverbs
Phrasal verbs in academic English
Key quantifying expressions

8 Words with several meanings
9 Metaphors and idioms

discipline, virtually, quantify
theory, model, pattern
attempt, establish; explain
relevant, abstract, significant
comparatively, eventually, simply
put forward, go through, write up
a substantial amount, in excess of, no fewer
set, accommodate, issue
shed light on, remain in the dark, the battle

Word combinations
10 Nouns and the words they combine with
11 Adjective and noun combinations
12 Verbs and the words they combine with
13 Prepositional phrases
14 Verbs and prepositions
15 Nouns an; d prepositions
16 Fixed expressions

heated debate, pivotal role, to collate results
important contribution, major concern,
widespread support
loosely based on, examine the evidence, suggest
an alternative solution
in conjunction with, 011 behalf of, for the most
focus on, consent to, account for
dissertation on, rationale for, progress towards
in a variety of ways, with the exception of,
be that as it may

At academic institutions

Applications and application forms
College arid university: the UK system
Systems compared: the US and the UK
Academic courses
Study habits and skills
Online learning

entry requirements, referee, deadline
student union, tutorial, research student
dormitory, freshman, fraternity
diploma, credits, defer
reading speed, mind map, rote learning
online community, username, subject header

Ways of talking about •••

Facts, evidence and data
Graphs and diagrams
Money and education
Cause and effect

primary source, draw on, body of literature
distort the facts, hard evidence, empirical data
random, tally, estimate
standard deviation, correlate, proportion
pie chart, intersect, decline
student loan, cost of living, receipt
century, simultaneous, in the near future
trigger, give rise to, chain reaction

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Opinions and ideas

Talking about ideas
Reporting what others say
Analysis of results
Talking about meaning
Research and study aims
Talking about points of view
Degrees of certainty

movement, hypothesis, stance
pinpoint, cast doubt on, implication
deduce, outweigh, critical
transparent, comprehend, misinterpret
objective, to further, instigate
impartial, ideology, hold views
tendency, likelihood, allegedly

38 Presenting an argument

beyond the scope of, furthermore, the extent to
with a focus on, at this point, respectively
address a topic, handout, take questions
carry out a procedure, case study, replicate
component, consist of, marital status
correlate with, mutual, interaction
distinction, similarly, whereas
experience difficulties, deal with, resolve a
context, integral, stable
simulation, to supplement, output
expansion, diminish, perceptible change
inadequate, contradictory, acknowledge
bring to a close, in the final analysis, finally

39 Organising your writing


Making a presentation
Describing research methods
Making connections
Comparing and contrasting
45 Describing problems


Describing situations
Processes and procedures
Describing change
Evaluation and emphasis
50 Summary and conclusion

Reading and vocabulary

Good friends 110
Australia 111
The World Wide Web 112
The human brain 113
Nanotechnology 114
International law: an overview


1 Formal and informal academic words and expressions


Numbers, units of measurement and common symbols 120
British and North American academic vocabulary 122
Spelling variations 126
Word formation 128
Abbreviations 132



List of phonemic symbols



Academic Vocabulary in Use


Authors' acknowledgements
The authors wish to thank their colleagues at Cambridge
University Press, especially Martine Walsh, Caroline Thiriau
and Nairin Burke, whose wise expertise and support have
been invaluable throughout this project. We are also very
grateful for the thorough and useful input provided by
Bernard Seal from Cambridge University Press New York.
We thank Alison Silver for the professional job she carried
out so efficiently in preparing the final manuscript for
production and printing. Linda Matthews too deserves our
thanks for organising the production schedules for the book.
We must also thank the lexicography and computational
team at Cambridge University Press whose work with the
Cambridge International Corpus, the Cambridge Learner
Corpus and the CANCODE corpus of spoken English
(developed at the University of Nottingham in association
with Cambridge University Pres~), enabled us to make a
fully corpus-informed selection of the academic vocabulary
we focus on in these materials.
We acknowledge with gratitude the pioneering work on
academic word lists done by Averil Coxhead. In planning
this book we made considerable use of her lists at
Also, as always, we thank our domestic partners for their
patience and support during the writing of this book.
Michael McCarthy & Felicity O'Dell
Cambridge, April 2007

Publisher's acknowledgements
Development of this publication has made use of the
Cambridge International Corpus (CIC). The CIC is a
computerised database of contemporary spoken and written
English which currently stands at over one billion words. It
includes British English, American English and other varieties
of English. It also includes the Cambridge Learner Corpus,
developed in collaboration with the University of Cambridge
ESOL Examinations. Cambridge University Press has built
up the CIC to provide evidence about language use that
helps to produce better language teaching materials.
The authors and publishers would like to thank all the ELT
professionals who reviewed the material:
Sue Argent, Long Dalmahoy, Scotland; Jennifer Bixby,
California, USA; Jane Bottomley, Manchester, UK; Cherry
Campbell, California, USA; Anthony Cosgrove, London, UK;
Rosie Ganne, London, UK; Ludmila Gorodetskaya, Moscow,
Russia; Mark Krzanowski, London, UK; Joseph McVeigh,
Vermont, USA; Julie Moore, Bristol, UK; Brendan 6 Se,
Cork, Ireland; Barbara Roosken, Tilburg, The Netherlands.

The authors and publishers would like to thank the
following for permission to reproduce copyright material in
Academic Vocabulary in Use. While every effort has been
made, it has not been possible to identify the sources of all
the material used and in such cases the publishers would
welcome information from copyright holders.
Cambridge University Press for the extracts on p. 14 (3A
second text) from Mechanics 1 (International) by Douglas
Quadling, copyright © 2002; p. 112 'The World Wide Web'
from Telecommunications by Stuart Kennedy, copyright ©
2001; p. 141 sentences from Cambridge Advanced Learner's
Dictionary, reproduced by permission of Cambridge
University Press; NewScientist for the extracts on p. 25 (8.4)
from NewScientist, 30 March 2006; p. 113 'The Human
Brain' by Helen Philips, from NewScientist, 4 September
2006; p. 114 'Nanotechnology' by John Pickrell, from
NewScientist, 4 September 2006, reproduced by permission
of NewScientist Magazine; Scientific American for the
extracts on p. 27 (9.3) 'Shutting down Alzheimer's' by
Michael S. Wolfe, from Scientific American, 5 May 2006;
p. 110 'Good Friends' by Klaus Manhart, from Scientific
American, ApriVMay 2006, reproduced by permission of
Scientific American Inc. All rights reserved; Narure for the
extract on p. 39 (15.4) from Nature Vol. 441, 4 May 2006,
published by Nature Publishing Group; Indiana University
for the extract on p. 55 (23.4), copyright © 2004, the
Trustees of Indiana University, reproduced by permission
of Indiana University; the Wikipedia website for the extract
on p. 70 (31A)]age;
ResCen, Middlesex University for the text on p. 78 (35B)
from the Rescen Research website
rescenlmain_pages/profile.html, reproduced hy permission of
the Centre for Research into Creation in the Performing Arts
(ResCen) at Middlesex University; Thomson Learning for the
extract on p. 111 'Australia' from World of Earth Science
(Vall) by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth (Editor),
copyright © 2003, reprinted with permission of Gale, a
division of Thomson Learning:;
Legal Information Institute for the adapted text on p. 115
'International law: an overview' from the website
cornell.edulwexlindex.php/internationaUaw, copyright Legal
Information Institute 1996-2007, reproduced by permission
of Legal Information Institute.
The publishers are grateful to the following for permission
to reproduce copyright photographs and material:

p. 20 © Thomas Fricke/Corbis; p. 36 © Robert E.
DaemmrichlStone/Getty Images; p. 66 © John Henleyl
CORBIS; p. 74 © age fotostock/SuperStock; p. 76 © Helen
King/Corbis; p. 77 © Jerry Schatzberg/CORBIS; p. 88 ©
image 1 OOICorbis.
Kamae Design pp. 35, 40, 44, 60, 61, 62, 63

Academic Vacabulary in Use


To the student and the teacher
Who is the book for?
This book is for anyone who wants or needs to learn the kind of English which is used
in academic contexts. It deals with the kinds of language used in academic textbooks
and articles as well as in lectures and seminars. It also presents vocabulary relating to
being a student at a university or college in that it covers such topics as Applications
and application forms, Money and education and Academic courses associated with
university life. It will be particularly useful for students preparing for IELTS or any other
examination aimed at assessing whether candidates' English is at a high enough level to
study in an academic institution where English is the medium of instruction. It will be
helpful for people who need to attend - or indeed give - lectures and presentations in
English or to participate in international conferences. It will enable students who have to
prepare assignments or write up a dissertation in English to do so in a much more natural
and appropriate way.

What kind of vocabulary does the book deal with?
The book presents and practises the kind of vocabulary that is used in academic speech
and writing regardless of which discipline you are concerned with. So it considers
words and expressions like concept, cast doubt on, put forward a theory and come to a
conclusion. It does not deal with the specialist vocabulary of any particular subject such
as medicine or physics. Such specialist terms are often relatively easy to master - they
will be explained and taught as you study the subject and these words may indeed
sometimes be similar in English and your own language. However, it is the more general
words used for discussing ideas and research and for talking and writing about academic
work that you need to be fully familiar with in order to feel comfortable in an academic
environment. Despite the fact that they are much more frequent than specialist words,
these more general words are often felt to be more difficult to learn. It is, therefore,
extremely useful to approach them in the systematic way suggested by this book.
One positive aspect of this kind of academic vocabulary is that there are relatively few
differences depending on whether you are studying in London or New York, Delhi or
Sydney, Johannesburg, Dublin, Wellington, Singapore or Toronto or indeed any other
place where you may be using English for academic purposes. Academic English tends
to be a truly international language and the units of the book focus on vocabulary that
will be essential for you regardless of where you are studying now or may study in
the future. There are some differences between the words used to describe people and
places and these are highlighted in Units 18 and 19. References 3 and 4 also focus on
some vocabulary and spelling variations. In the units of the book we use British English
spelling conventions except when quoting texts which originally used American spelling.
Much of the vocabulary in the book is neutral in the sense that it is equally appropriate
for both written and spoken contexts. We indicate those instances where a word or
expression is too formal for use in speech or too informal for use in academic writing.


Academic Vocabulary in Use

How was the vocabulary for the book selected?
The academic vocabulary focused on in this book was all selected from language identified
as significant by the Cambridge International Corpus of written and spoken English and
also the CANCODE corpus of spoken English developed at the University of Nottingham
in association with Cambridge University Press. These enormous corpora include large
collections of written and spoken academic text and so it was possible to identify language
that is distinctive for academic contexts. We also made considerable use of the Cambridge
Learner Corpus, a corpus of tens of thousands of learner scripts from students taking
Cambridge ESOL exams all over the world. From this corpus we were able to learn what
kinds of errors students taking, for example IELTS, were typically making.
In planning this book we made considerable use of Averil Coxhead's work on developing
academic word lists. Her lists can be found at
index.shtml and we would highly recommend that students of academic vocabulary
investigate this site.

How is the book organised?
The book has 50 two-page units. The left-hand page presents the academic vocabulary
to be focused on in the unit. You will usually find examples of academic vocabulary
presented in context with, where appropriate, any special notes about their meaning and
usage. The right-hand page checks that you have understood the information on the lefthand page by giving you a series of exercises practising the language that was presented.
The units are organised into different sections. The first introductory section includes
nine units which look at basic aspects of academic vocabulary such as what is special
about academic vocabulary, key verbs and key quantifying expressions. The second
section devotes seven units to how words typically combine with one another in
academic English. The third section has six units focusing on aspects of life at academic
institutions. The fourth section provides eight units discussing ways of talking about sllch
things as numbers, time and cause and effect. Then we have seven units exploring aspects
of opinions and ideas and finally there are thirteen units with a functional focus such as
organising a text, comparing and contrasting and describing change.
Towards the end of the book you will find six reading texts relating to different academic
disciplines with exercises based on the vocabulary in those texts. We hope that you will
find these useful examples of how to use texts to expand your knowledge of academic
vocabulary in English and would recommend that you read these texts and do the exercises
on them even if they relate to an academic subject that is very different from your own.
There are six reference sections dealing with some key areas where we felt it would be
useful for you to have lists of items that could not be presented as fully in the main body
of the book, i.e. Formal and informal academic words and expressions; Numbers, units
of measurement and common symbols; British and North American academic vocabulary;
Spelling variations; Word formation and Abbreviations. Where appropriate, these reference
sections provide space for you to add further examples of your own.
At the end of the book there is a Key with answers to all the exercises and an Index of all
the key words and expressions, indicating the units where they can be found. The
pronunciation is provided for standard British English.

How should I use this book?
We recommend that you work through the nine introductory units first so that you
become familiar with key aspects of academic vocabulary and how best to study it. After
that you may work on the units in any order that suits you.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


What else do I need in order to improve my academic vocabulary?
You need a notebook or file in which you can write down all the academic vocabulary
that you study in this book as well as any other words and expressions that you come
across elsewhere. In your vocabulary notebook it is important to record such things as:
• examples of the word or expression in use
• typical word combinations - you might, for example, note down adjectives or verbs
typically associated with a noun that you want to learn or nouns, adverbs or prepositions
associated with a verb
• any special features of the word (e.g. is there anything special about its grammar or
pronunciation, or is it particularly characteristic of either written or spoken English?).
You may also find it helpful to record such things as:
• any other information that might help you to learn the word (e.g. is it similar to any word
in your own language, or does it, perhaps, share a root with a word that you already
• any additional vocabulary that learning this word may help you to learn (e.g. does a verb
have a related noun, or what is the opposite of an adjective?)
• any extended uses of the word being focused on (e.g. can it be llsed metaphorically, or does
the same word have other meanings in the way that so many English words do?).
One very important aspect of learning vocabulary is to organise the words and
expressions you meet; this will help you remember them better. You can do this in
a number of ways. In recording words many learners find it helpful to include little
diagrams such as word bubbles, for example:

to ill.te.rf>re.t - - - - - _ \ .


or word forks, for example:

<1.11. i~ol<1.ted



<I. LAlI.ive.r~<l.l

You also need to have access to a good dictionary. We strongly recommend the Cambridge
Advanced Learner's Dictionary as this provides exactly the kind of information that you need
in order to be able to understand and use English vocabulary. Through its example sentences
it provides YOll with the information you need about how the word is used in practice and
which other words it typically combines with. The dictionary also helps you with difficult
items such as phrasal verbs, for example, indicating whether the object can come before the
particle (set up the apparatus / set the apparatus up; go through a set of calculations, but not
go a set ofealeulations th1'Ough). This dictionary is available as a book and on a CD-ROM
and can also be accessed online at You will need a specialist
dictionary relating to your own subject area as well. Your teacher may also be able to
recommend other dictionaries for your specific needs.

8 Academic Vocabulary in Use

As well as working through the units in this book you should read as much English as you
can in the subject areas that are most relevant for you. If you are new to studying in English,
you could start by reading a textbook aimed at students at a slightly lower level than you
are at as far as the subject area is concerned; or you might prefer to read the latest articles
in your field from a journal or the internet. If you have easy access to the web, then there is
an enormous wealth of material available for you to study and learn from; many universities
and other academic institutions have extensive websites, for example, as do professional
organisations and journals.
So, good luck with your work in academic English. We hope that the materials in this book
will help you to enjoy and to benefit fully from your studies. We hope you will be able to
share ideas in a creative, exciting way with scholars from all over the world and we wish you
the very best for a successful and rewarding academic life in English.

Academic Vocabulary in Use



What is special about academic English?
Everyday words and academic uses
Many words in academic English are the same as everyday vocabulary, but they are often
also used with a slightly different meaning, which may be specialised.

everyday or academic use


academic use


Standards of discipline in
schools have declined.

ability to control
oneself or other

Nanotechnology is a relatively
new discipline.

area of study

Underline your family
name on the form.

draw a line
under it

The research underlines the
importance of international trade

gives emphasis to

The lake was frozen solid.

not liquid or gas

We have no solid evidence that
radiation has caused the problem.

certain or safe; of a
good standard

Vocabulary and academic style
• In writing, academics use many expressions which are neutral, but they also use rather
formal expressions which are not common in everyday language. Knowing whether an
expression is formal or just neutral is important.


more formal


more formal

in short. briefly. basically

in sum. to sum up






almost / more or less


typical of

characteristic of

However, very informal vocabulary may be used in spoken academic styles in classes and
lectures. Learn to understand such language when you hear it but be careful not to lise it in
essays and written assignments. Here are some examples of teachers using informal language.
'OK. Have a shot at doing task number 3.' [more formal: Try/Attempt to do ... ]
'There's no way schools can be held responsible for failures of government policy.' [more
formal: Schools cannot in any way be held ... ]
• Academic language tries to be clear and precise, so it is important to keep a vocabulary
notebook (see page 8) and learn the differences between similar words, as well as typical
word combinations (underlined here).
The building is a prime example of 1920s architecture. [excellent in quality or value]
The group's primary concern is to protect human rights. rmain / most important]

Noun phrases
Academic language puts a lot of information into noun phrases rather than spreading it out
over a whole sentence. For example, instead of saying Radiation was accidentally released
over a 24-hour period, damaging a wide area for a long time, an academic might say The

accidental release of radiation over a 24-hour period caused widespread long-term damage.
It is therefore important to learn the different forms of a word, for example:











Finally, be aware of 'chunks' or phrases which occur frequently, and learn them as whole
units. Examples: in terms of, in addition, for the most part, in the case of, etc. (See Unit 16.)

Academic Vocabulary

in Use

I. 1

Each word in the box can be used in two ways, one an everyday way, the other a typically
academic way. Complete each pair of sentences using the same word for both sentences and
making any necessary grammatical changes.

1 A
2 A
3 A
4 A
5 A
6 A
7 A
8 A
9 A
10 A










She loves to ...................................... for photographs in front of her fabulous house.
The events ...................................... a threat to stability in the region.
It was difficult to ...................................... the camera on the flower as it was so small.
We should ...................................... our attention on the most important issues.
I called the airline and ...................................... my reservation.
The data ...................................... my hypothesis that animal-lovers enjoy better health.
The power plant ...................................... electricity for the whole region.
This issue always ...................................... a great deal of debate among academics.
The murderer was ...................................... from fingerprints discovered at the scene.
In this theory of history, progress is closely ...................... ........... with technology.
....... ................ . conservation.
She became interested in
The first lecture in the series was on the .................................... of human communication.
jim's a very interesting ...................................... . I hope you meet him.
The book attempts to explain the fundamental
.............. ............. of social life.
I saw her ...................................... to her husband and whisper something in his ear.
Let us now ...................................... to the subject of town planning.
He always ...................................... every new word when he's reading.
The study ...................................... the fact that very little research exists.
The liquid became .................................... as the temperature was lowered.
The study lacks ...................................... evidence and therefore its conclusions are doubtful.

Use more formal alternatives to the words in bold. Make any necessary grammatical

I .3


The book is mainly concerned with the problem of policing the internet.
Almost every school in the county had reported problems with the new system.
The work of the Institute is not only devoted to cancer research.
Basically, we believe we have demonstrated a significant link between the two events.
We tried to find a new way of understanding the data.
The study is a really good example of the way sociologists collect their data.
The reaction is typical of the way large corporations keep control of their markets.
There's no way London can be compared to Sydney as a place to live and work.

Read the text and then answer the questions.
The production of plastics depends heavily on petroleum, but a novel way of making
plastics out of sugar could reduce our reliance on oil. The discovery that a chemical
in sugar can be converted relatively easily into a substance similar in structure to the
material obtained from petroleum has led to the claim that plastics could soon be
produced cheaply using the new method.

1 Underline two verbs with adverbs after them which it would be useful to learn as pairs.
2 Underline two adverbs next to each other which it would be useful to learn together.
3 What are the noun forms of the verbs produce, rely, discover and claim?
Academic Vocabulary in Use


Key nouns
This unit focuses on some frequent and important nouns in academic English . See also Units
10, 11 and 15.

General nouns referring to ideas
example (with prepositions underlined)


She wrote an article on the subject of class.

thing which is being discussed, considered or studied

The theme of the poem is emigration.

main subject of a talk, book, etc.

The students were given a list of essay topics.

used to refer to what one is studying or writing about

There was a lively debate on the issue of
globalisation in the seminar yesterday.

subjectJproblem which people are thinking/talking about

Political theory is a popular undergraduate subject.
Einstein's theory of gravitation has been
questioned recently.

statement of the rules on which a subject of study is
based or, more generally, an opinion or explanation

The model of climate change presented in the
Stern Review seems to be becoming a reality.

a representation of something as a simple description
which might be used in calculations

The book is called 'The Nature of Intelligence'.

main characteristic of something

Human behaviour is based on the principle of
least effort.

basic idea or rule that explains how something happens
or works

More specific nouns connected with ideas and phenomena
example (with prepositions underlined)


Repetition is an important aspect of speech
development in children.

one individual part of a situation, problem, subject,

Automatic backup is a feature of the new software.

a typical quality of something

The political motives for the government's actions are
beyond the scope 2f this essay.

range of a subject covered by a book, discussion,
class, etc.

The study revealed a pattern of results which
could be interpreted in either of two ways.

showed a regularly repeated arrangement

During 2005, the number of violent attacks
increased to an alarming degree.

amount or level

Nouns referring to ways of thinking, processes and activities
Read these titles of academic books and articles. Note the key nouns and their prepositions.
Micro-organisms in water: their significance l and identification 2
Renewable energy: a critical assessment 3 of recent research
The Case" for Change: Rethinking Teacher Education. Towards a New Approach s
Perspectives6 on Ecological Management: A study of public awareness 7 of river pollution
Citizens' Views on Healthcare Systems in the European Union
Epidemiological research intoS asthma and allergic disease: establishing a standardised methodologl
I importance 2 ability to establish the identity of something 3 judgement of the amount, value,
quality or importance of " arguments, facts and reasons in support of or against something
s way of considering something 6 different particular or individual ways of considering
something 7 having special interest in or experience of something, and so being well informed
S research is often also used with the preposition on 9 a system of ways of studying something

Research is uncountable. Don't say They carried out some interesting ,eseCliCI'les.To make it
plural you can just say 'studies', or 'research studies' or 'pieces of research'.


Academic Vocabulary in Use

2. I

Look at A. Choose the most appropriate noun to complete each sentence.
1 Environmental topics / issues / principles should be at the top of today's political agenda.
2 In the exam students had to choose three from a choice of ten essay subjects / theories /
3 There are still people who are reluctant to accept Darwin's model/topic / theory of
4 The professor decided to take moral courage as the issue / theme / model for his
inaugural lecture.
5 The London underground map is best understood as a model/principle / topic showing
how the different stations relate to one another rather than a precise representation of
their distances from each other.
6 The Peter Issue / Principle / Theme states that members of a hierarchical group will
usually end up being promoted to the point at which they become incompetent.


There are six phrases containing errors underlined in this paragraph. Can you correct them?
The study showed that local police can play an important role in
crime prevention. It makes a strong case of boosting the numbers of
community police officers although it warns against increasing police
presence on the streets at an alarming degree. Its methodological was
based on a range of interviews asking members of the public for their
views in how best to prevent crime. Unfortunately, how to implement
this recommendation was out of the scope of the study but at least it
serves a useful purpose in raising awareness to the issue.


Look at these titles of academic books (A-H). Then match them to their subject areas (1-8).
A The Nature of Democracy
B The Significance of Dreams
C The Features of Glaciated Landscapes
D The Assessment of Language Skills
E An Approach to Free Verse
F The Identification of Bees
G Perspectives on Modern Taxation
H New Perspectives on Cleopatra




Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

The study revealed a regular
The research focllses on one particular
The writer makes a powerful
The writers take an original
Until recently there was little
I think you should broaden the
To date, there has been little research
There are many important

scope of your research.
awareness of the problem.
issues facing the world today.
into the environmental effects of nanoparticles.
approach to their theme.
aspect of modern society.
pattern of changes in temperature.
case for restructuring parliament.

Academic Vocabulary in Use



Key verbs
In this unit we look at some important verbs in academic English.

Verbs for structuring academic assignments
Look at these tasks which students have been given. Note the key verbs.
Discuss some of the problems involved l in investigating attitudes to diet and health. Write a critical
review of an investigation you have read about, or describe an investigation you yourself could conduct2•
Consider the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.
Starting from rest, an aircraft accelerates to its take-off speed of 60 m s-I in a distance of 900 metres.
lIIustrate3 this with a velocity-time graph. Assuming4 constant acceleration. findS how long the take-off
run lasts. Hence calculate6 the acceleration.
'The fact that nations agree to follow international law demonstrates 7 that we can identify8 ideals that
are trans-national and trans-cultural.' How far is this statement true? Critically analyse any recent event
which supports or challenges9 the statement.
Examine lo how industrial growth has affected any two developing countries. Provide I I statistical
evidence where necessary and include a discussion of likely future trends.
I which are part of/included in 2 organise and do 3 draw something in order to explain
something 4 accepting something to be true S discover by calculating (see 6) 6 judge the
number or amount of something and adding, multiplying, subtracting or dividing numbers
7 show, make clear 8 recognise someone or something and say or prove who or what they are
9 questions whether it is true 10 look at or consider carefully and in detail II give

More key verbs
These extracts from academic books contain other key verbs.
In developing methods to explain the significance of health status measures, one can classify I ways of
establishing 2 quality of life into two main types.
The length of time spent on the tasks may account for 3 the decrease in motivation which was
seen 4 in many of the participants.
The data presented S in Chapter 3 showed 6 that the age of the subjects was not the main factor.
Political theory attempts7 to build bridges between different schools of political thought.
I divide things into groups according to their type
often used in the passive in academic style S given


discover or get proof of
proved 7 (formal) tries


explain 4 see is

Verbs which combine with noun forms of key verbs
Often in academic style, a verb + the noun form of the key verb is used.


verb + noun



give/provide/offer an explanation

The model provides an explanation for the differences
between the two sets of data.


carry out an exploration (of)

Kumar carried out an exploration of music genius.


place/put emphasis (on)

The hospital puts a lot of emphasis on training nurses.


give/provide a description (of)

The book gives a description of modern Europe.

The verbs affect and effect are different. To affect means to influence. to effect means to
make something happen / to bring about. The burning of fossil fuels has negatively affected
the global climate. The procedure has been successful and has effected a return to normal
functioning of the engine. See Unit 30 for more on affect and effect.


Academic Vocabulary in Use


Match each verb from A in the box on the left with its synonym from the box on the right.
affect attempt calculate challenge demonstrate
identify include investigate provide


compute distinguish give influence
involve question show study try

Choose the best verb from B or C to complete these sentences. Put the verb into the correct
1 As can ...... .............................. from Table II, participation figures have been steadily falling since 1970.
2 Different authors have ...................................... for the President's actions in different ways.
3 Mendel attempted to devise a system for ...................................... the many different types of pea
plant that he grew.
4 It is often most effective ...................................... your data in a chart or table.
5 The data we have collected .................................... that there has been a downward trend with
regard to job satisfaction over the last 50 years.
6 The aim of the research is .................................. .. a new software application which will help
aviation engineers design more sophisticated aircraft.
7 The archaeologists should be able to use carbon dating techniques ...................................... exactly
how old the bones are.
8 Charles Darwin attempted ...................................... the existence of different species in terms of


Explain the difference between the sentences in each pair.


Greig's article supports Park's theory.
Describe the new tax regulations.
Lodhi provides new data.
Titova conducted four sets of experiments.
Lee established why such changes occur.
Okaz assumed that the data were reliable.
Illustrate the magnitude of the deceleration.
The events effected economic development.

Greig's article challenges Park's theory.
Discuss the new tax regulations.
Lodhi considers new data.
Titova examined four sets of experiments.
Lee investigated why such changes occur.
Okaz proved that the data were reliable.
Find the magnitude of the deceleration.
The events affected economic development.

Rewrite each sentence using the word in brackets and make any necessary changes to other
1 Erikson's theory explains the fluctuations in the figures for this period. (PROVIDES)
2 Bevan explored the relationship between family background and political ambition.

3 The book describes the life and times of Abraham Lincoln. (DESCRIPTION)
4 Cheng's theory emphasises the importance of extensive reading in language acquisition.



In academic style, noun phrases can often be used instead of some of the key verbs.
Complete each phrase with the appropriate noun. Use a dictionary if necessary.
1 investigate = conduct, carry out an
...................................... intolof
2 illustrate = provide an ...................................... of
3 analyse = provide, carry out an ....................... of

4 affect = have an ...................................... on
5 attempt = make an ..................................... tolat
6 classify = make, provide a ....................... of

Using the tasks in A as a model. prepare some assignment topics for students studying any
subject that you are familiar with.

Academic Vacabulary in Use


Key adjectives
For any adjective it is useful to know whether it is typically followed by a specific preposition
and whether it has any synonyms (adjectives with a similar meaning) or antonyms (adjectives
of opposite meaning).

Adjectives and prepositions
Here are some extracts from academic texts, with adjectives followed by to or of.
language development is conceived as
relative I to one' s own past performance,
or relative to that of others.

Some of the responses to the questionnaire
were specific4 to young male respondents.
Others were commons to all the respondents.

How can we make science relevant 2 to
environmental policy? Poor communication
between scientists and politicians is
characteristic3 of the situation today.

We need to plan technologies which are
appropriate 6 to the needs of small farm ers. \
Jt was typical o f the farmers in the study that
they hall a negative attitude to technology.


I true to a particular degree when it is being compared with other things 2 connected with what
is happening or being discussed 3 (rather formal) typical of 4 only found in S belonging to or
shared by two or more people or things 6 suitable or right for a particular situation or occasion

Adjectives and their opposites
Look at this abstract from a dissertation on drug abuse. In most cases you can work out the
meanings of the opposites (which follow each numbered adjective), based on the definitions.
We cannot discuss drug abuse as an abstra-c t
of abuse and their social consequences. Abuse is rarely a simple2 issue; it usually results from a
complex set of circumstances. Both quantitative 3 and qualitative research Is necessary to gain
a full picture of the situation. By combining research methods, we may obtain an accurate picture
of the causes and results of abuse, in contrast with the inaccurate assessments which often
result from purely quantitative studies. A significant4 amount of fear and prejudice surrounds the
notion of abuse, and the media have a role which is also not insignificant in promoting such fears. :
The dissertation concludes that roughS estimates of the number of drug addicts need to be made I
more precise by properly defining addiction.

existing as an idea, not as a material object; opposite: existing in a form that can be seen or felt
having or made of only one or a few parts 3 based on numbers and statistics; opposite: usually
research using non-number-based methods such as interviews, focus groups, etc. 4 important or
noticeable S fairly correct but not exact or detailed; opposite: exact and accurate


Other important, frequent adjectives and typical combinations with nouns
There was an apparent l discrepancy between the two sets of results.
We noted a potentia]2 problem with the experimental design which we had to deal with first.
The principaP cause of the failure was a sudden temperature change.
The research used a rigorous 4 methodology which had been tested on many occasions.
I seeming to exist or be true 2 possible when the necessary conditions exist 3 first in order of
importance 4 careful to look at or consider every part of something to make certain it is correct



16 Academic Vocabulary in Use

Remember to say typical of, NOT typical fm: Learn adjectives with the prepositions that
often follow them, as in A.

4. I

Look at A. Correct the preposition errors in these sentences.
1 A lengthy discussion of the advantages of solar power is not relevant with an essay that
required you to focus on wind turbines.
2 It is typical to the disease for it to start with an itchy rash.
3 This methodology is not appropriate about the kind of research you are planning.
4 The use of original metaphors is characteristic from the writer's style.
S Relative with previous attempts to explain the phenomenon, this interpretation is quite
6 The dark hair and eyes are common for all people from the region.


Rewrite each sentence using the opposite of the adjective in italics.


Match the adjective on the left with the noun it often combines with on the right.


Karlsson checked the figures and agreed with me that they were accurate.
The solution to the problem is a simple one.
Make rough calculations before you begin to write up your results.
The army played a significant role in events.
Hernandez prefers to discuss ideas in abstract terms.


Now use one of the combinations from 4.3 to complete these sentences.
1 There is an ................... .............. in your figures.
2 Management's refusal to listen to the workers' demands was the ................................... of the riots.
3 Lamaque devised a ......................... which has since been used successfully by many other
researchers in the field.
4 We spotted a ........_........................... with our procedure and so we changed it in two areas.


Choose the best adjective from the box to complete these sentences.





1 The plant is difficult to grow and needs very ...................................... conditions to survive.
2 His tutor was critical of his work for not being ............................... enough.
3 In the past the northern tribes looked on the tribes of the south as ... ... . ................... enemies.
4 We chose a ................... ...... approach to our research and interviewed individuals personally.
SA ................................... set of circumstances led to a civil war in 1897.


When you come across any of the key adjectives from this unit in your reading. note it down in a
phrase sO you build up a set of useful phrases using the adjective.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Key adverbs
This unit deals with just some of the adverbs that are particularly frequent in an academic
context. You will find more in other units throughout this book.

Adverbs that compare




in comparison with something else

Our sample was relatively/
comparatively small.


more than usual

The process was not especially/
particularly difficult.


more than usual (spoken English only)
for a specific purpose

The exam was specially hard this year.
We used specially designed equipment.

somewhat (opposite:

(slightly formal) a little, slightly

When we tested younger boys, we
obtained somewhat/considerably
different results.



Amir is primarily interested in bio-physics.


almost completely (but not totally so)

The research was largely/mostly

directly (opposite:

without anything else being involved

The illness is (in)directly linked to poor

Adverbs that relate to numbers or time
There are approximately 20 varieties of bird in this species. [roughly, about]
There are precisely 48 different managerial posts in the company. [exactly]
Interviewees frequently misunderstood one of the questions. [often]
We eventually obtained the results we were hoping for. [in the end, after some time]
Ultimately we plan to repeat the experiment. [finally, after other things have been completed]

Adverbs that relate to how things are stated
Hall's latest article essentially I differs from his earlier work in that it is explicitly2 critical of the
government. Generally\ his disapproval of their policies was only conveyed implicitly 4 in his
previous writing, but here he specifically condemns their handling of a number of issues.

referring to its main characteristics; also basically 2 openly
not directly, suggested or implied rather than stated


usually, also on the whole

Adverbs that restrict or limit

=exactly and nothing more: The medication will merely make the symptoms

bearable; it will not cure the disease.
simply Note that simply can have different meanings. To put it simply, the risks of this
approach would seem to outweigh its advantages. [plainly] The book presents difficult ideas
simply, in a way appropriate for the layman. [easily; someone who isn't a specialist in the
field] The exam results were simply dreadful. [absolutely, without doubt]
hardly ever = almost never: The tribe has hardly ever had contact with the outside world.
Eventually means 'in the end'. It does not mean ·perhaps/possibly'.
We will perhaps/possibly (NOT evefltually) discover life on other planets in the future.
Eventually [in the end]. we were able to interview all 20 children involved in the test

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Look at A and B. Explain the difference between the sentences in each pair.
1 Heinrich's experiments were mostly successful.
Heinrich's experiments were most successful.
2 The results were somewhat surprising given the circumstances.
The results were especially surprising given the circumstances.
3 First-year students are directly affected by the new rules relating to tuition fees.
First-year students are particularly affected by the new rules relating to tuition fees.
4 The study is primarily concerned with urban alienation.
The study is ultimately concerned with urban alienation.
5 The team eventually obtained un predicted results.
The team frequently obtained unpredicted results.


Choose the more appropriate adverb from the options.
What you are saying is essentially / merely true. To put it basically / simply, there is
specially / basically no significant difference between the two writers' theories. However,
one of them writes in a simply / precisely dreadful style while the other has eventually /
possibly a more impressive style than any other contemporary scientist.


Change the sentences using adverbs which mean the opposite of the underlined ones.


There were roughly 350 people living in the village in 1958.
Parents seldom complained that the school authorities failed to inform them of changes.
We investigated the problem and initially found some small errors in the calculations.
The temperature was exactly half a degree lower than the average.
Singh (1998) is explicitly critical of existing theories of economic growth.
Soil erosion is specifically caused by water or wind.
Senior citizens almost always use the internet to communicate with one another.
The disease is directly linked to environmental factors.

Underline the adverbs in these texts. Then answer the questions.
Marine conservationists are currently attempting
to save the world's coral reefs. One plan is to
literally glue the damaged reefs back together,
using coral artificially raised in underwater
labs. Reefs are increasingly under attack from
human activity as well as from events occurring
naturally, such as hurricanes and tsunamis.
A recent UN report warns that 30% of the
world's coral reefs have been completely
destroyed or are severely damaged.


Scientists have recently discovered that ants
can remember how many steps they have
taken. By carefully shortening or lengthening
the legs of ants, the team observed that
short-legged ants apparently became lost and
could not easily find their way home to the
nest. Similarly, ants with longer legs typically
travelled 50% further than they needed to and
were also temporarily unable to find the nest.
It seems ants can definitely count their steps.

Which adverb means 'in the same way'?
Find two pairs of adverbs that mean the opposite of each other.
Which adverb means the opposite of 'a long time ago'?
Which adverb means 'more and more'?
Which adverb could be substituted by seriously?
Which adverb means 'for a limited time'?


Find an article of interest to you in your discipline and underline all the key adverbs. Then check
that you understand their meaning.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Phrasal verbs in academic English
Although phrasal verbs occur most frequently in more informal spoken and written English,
they are also not uncommon in an academic context. You will hear them used in lectures and
will read them in serio us journals. From this unit only go/look back over and work out are
not appropriate for a formal written assignment.

Phrasal verbs and one-word synonyms
Phrasal verbs often have one-word synonyms. These are usually of Latin origin and sound
more formal than their phrasal verb equivalent but both are appropriate when writing or
talking about academic subjects. Vary your language by using both.

phrasal verb



put forward (an idea/view/opinion/


In her latest article Kaufmann puts forward a
theory which is likely to prove controversial.

carry out (an experiment / research)


I intend to carry out a series of experiments.

make up


Children under the age of 15 make up nearly
half of the country's popUlation.

be made up of

consist of

Parliament is made up of two houses.

point out


Grenne points out that the increase in life
expectancy has led to some economic problems.

point up


The study points up the weaknesses in the
current school system.

set out (to do something)


In his article Losanov sets out to prove that ...

set out
go into


The document sets out the terms of the treaty.


In this book Sergeant goes into the causes of the
Civil War in some depth.

revise, review *

Please go/look back over this term's notes.

go/look back over
go through

Go through your calculations carefully.

* Revise is the BrE synonym and review the ArnE synonym. (Revise in ArnE only means to edit
or change something to make it better; review is not used in BrE in the context of preparing for
a test as focused on here.)

Carrying out research
After completing her first degree in zoology Meena went on
tol apply to graduate school. She wanted to work on 2 animal
behaviour at a well-known institute in New Zealand. She set up3 a
series of experiments investigating how bees communicate. She has
noticed some curious behaviour patterns but has not yet worked
out4 why her bees behave as they do. What she has observed
seems to go againstS current theories of bee behaviour. When she
has completed all her research she will have to write it all Up6.

do something after doing something else 2 study, work in the field of 3 prepared, arranged
come to a conclusion about 5 not be in agreement with 6 (of an important document) write in
a final form




Consult a good dictionary when you use phrasal verbs in your writing. For example, a good
dictionary tells you when the object can be used before the particle (e.g. write your results uP) and
when it cannot (e.g. this goes against current theories).

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Rewrite the sentences replacing the underlined word in each sentence with a phrasal verb
from A. Note that both versions of each sentence are equally appropriate.
1 We conducted a series of experiments to test out our hypothesis.
2 Before the test you should revise Chapters 7 and 8 of your textbooks.
3 In his article on the American Civil War Kingston discusses the reasons why the situation
developed in the way it did.
4 Cole presents some fascinating theories on the development of language in his latest book.
S The psychologist observed that it was very unusual for a young child to behave in this way.
6 Please check your work again carefully before handing it in.
7 In this article Simpson aims to prove that the Chinese reached America long before the
8 Women now constitute over half the student population in most universities in this


Fill in the missing words in this paragraph.
As part of my MA I've been doing some research on language acquisition. I've been
working (1) ..
................ how young children learn their mother tongue. I've been
carrying (2) ............................. some experiments to see how much reading to young
children affects their language development. I've had a great supervisor who has
.. my experiments and she's also pointed (4)
helped me set (3)
lots of interesting things in my data that I hadn't noticed myself. I'm busy writing my
now and I think I should be able to put (6)
work (5) ..
useful ideas. It's been really fascinating and I hope I may be able to go (7)
to do a doctorate in the same field although I certainly never set (8) .
to do

a PhD.


Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.


Feudal society was made
Carlson was the first to put
Her results appear to go
The investigation pointed
It took him a long time to work
The geography book sets

forward a convincing theory with regard to this question.
up the flaws in the school's testing methods.
out the solution to the algebra problem.
out a lot of basic information about all the world's
against what she had found in her earlier studies.
up of clearly defined classes of people.

Answer these questions.
1 What sort of things might a scientist carry out?
2 If you want to study something in more depth, what might you go on to do after getting
a first degree?
3 What do postgraduate students typically have to write up at the end of their studies?
4 What sort of things do good students regularly look back over?
S What sorts of things do scholars typically put forward in their lectures or articles?
6 Why is it sensible to go through any maths calculations that you had to make as part of a
research study before you draw any conclusions?

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Key quantifying expressions
Quantifying expressions are important in academic English as it is often necessary to
comment on figures or trends. You will find more useful language for talking about numbers
in Units 25 and 26 and in Reference 2, which focuses on measurement.

Number and amount
Learners of English often choose the wrong noun relating to quantity. For example, you
say a great (not large) deal (informal) or a large/great amount of an uncountable noun
such as money, interest or influence. However, you say a large number of a plural noun
such as articles, books or words. Both a number and an amount can be described as small,
considerable, substantial, significant, enormous, total, surprising, excessive [too much/many],
fair [quite a lot] and reasonable [acceptable].

Other nouns relating to quantity
The size of our survey was relatively small-scale. We sent out 2,500 questionnaires
in total ' . Although a couple 2 of people did not respond, the bulk3 of those sent
questionnaires have completed them. The survey shows that, as a whole 4, the
population is becoming more aware of the importance of recycling. Only one ofs our
respondents said that he recycled less than he used to.
in all 2 two or three, a few 3 the majority "considered as a group rather than individually
notice how respondents is in the plural; it is a common error to write a singular noun after one
of ... (respondentslsurveyslconclusions, etc.)


Comparing numbers and quantities




Results exceeding 5 cm were eliminated from the

(formal) means higher than

in excess of

People who drive in excess of the speed limit will be
fined .

means over, used mainly in
official or legal writing

fewer and
fewer /Iess
and less

Fewer and fewer people are staying in the same job
throughout their lives. Young people are becoming less
and less interested in politicS.

a steadily declining/decreasing
number of, decreasingly

more and

There is more and more interest in the topic.
People are becoming more and more aware of the

a steadily increasing amount of,

more or less

The experiment was more or less a success.

(slightly informal) means
mostly or approximately

no fewer than

No fewer than 200 people responded.

used to suggest the number
was unexpectedly large

Note the Significant difference between few and a few and between little and a little.

Few [Not many] people enjoy X:S music. A few [Some] people enjoy it. We hod little [not
much] response to our survey. We had a little [some] response Co our survey. In other words,
few/little has a more negative tone than a few I a little.


Academic Vocabulary ;n Use


Complete the sentences using the correct form s of the words in italics .
In a ...................................... number of cases, there was no reaction at all to the drug. surprise
The analysis demanded an ...................................... amount of computer time. exceed
...................................... numbers of birds inhabit the lake during the winter. consider
The course requires a ...................................... amount of prior knowledge of computers. reason
The survey took a ...................................... amount of research time and costs were high. substance
The two dams can hold in ...................................... of two cubic kilometres of water. exceed
In ...................................... , 12 areas of the Southern Indian Ocean are now closed to deep-sea
fishing. totality
8 Groups ............................... four people were considered too large for the experiment. exceed
9 No ................................... than 2,000 new computer viruses are created every year. few
10 In a ............................. number of cases, surface damage was noticed. signify


The sentences below are typical of spoken English. Replace the underlined words to make
them sound more appropriate for a written assignment.


The bulk of our work is concerned with carbon emissions.
We have noticed that fewer and fewer students are joining the course.
Our team spent a fair am ount of time getting funding for the research.
In a cou ple of cases, we could not find any reason for the outbreak.
We spent a great deal of time on the project.
As you repeat the experiment, use less and less water each time.

Read the text and answer the questions.
For some yea rs now, scientists have been using a powerful new machine to recreate the
conditions that existed at the birth of the universe. The machine generates a massive number
of hot, dense, bursts of matter and energy, Simulating what happened in the first few
microseconds of the beginning of the universe. After no more than ten microseconds, the
particles of matter joined together, like water freezing into ice, forming the origin of more or
less everything we see in the universe today.




exp ression explains how long scientists have been using this machine?
expression tells us how many bursts of matter and energy the machine generates?
time period does the machine simulate?
expression states how long it was before the particles of matter joined together?
expression in th e last sentence means approximately ?

Rewrite the paragraph using the opposites of the underlined words or expressions.
There have been a small number of studies investigating the impact of email on interpersonal
communications. None of th e stud ies has been large-scale but they suggest some interesting
trends in patterns of emai l use. From one of the older studies it seems that more and more
people send in excess of 50 emails daily. Moreover, it appears that a substantial number of senior
citizens use email a lot more frequently than younger people do.


Find five quantifying expressions from one of your textbooks and write your own sentences
using them.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Words with several meanings
Many words in English have more than one meaning. The word set, for example, is one
word with a particularly large number of distinctly different meanings. As our focus is
academic English, some key uses of set are illustrated by these examples.
a) Set the instruments to zero. [get something ready so it can be operated]
b) I would like to set some ground rules for the course. [establish]
c) The decision set a number of changes in motion. [caused to be in a stated condition]
d) We must set a time for our next meeting. [arrange]
e) Concrete sets as it cools. [becomes solid]
f) The students entered the room and immediately set to work. [started work]
g) The condition is associated with a particular set of symptoms. [group]
h) We have a number of set books to study in our literature class. [that must be studied]

More academic meanings for familiar words
Here are some more words which in an academic context may have a different meaning from
those you are familiar with from your knowledge of general English.


academic meaning(s)


accommodate (verb)

change to allow something to fit in

He had to adapt his theory to
accommodate new information.

contract (verb)

shorten, become smaller

As the metal cools it contracts.

occur (verb)


Some valuable minerals occur
naturally in these rocks.

reference (noun)

author or book mentioned in a piece of
writing to show where information was found

You must provide a list of
references at the end of your

revolution (noun)

complete turn (e.g. of a wheel)

Time is measured by the revolution
of the earth around the sun.

structure (noun)

way in which parts of a system or object are
organised or arranged

The structure of this element is
particularly complex.

Words with several different academic meanings
Many academic words have specific meanings according to their discipline. Channel, for
example, has specific meanings in electronics, linguistics, biology, physics and geography.
So you will, of course, need a specialist dictionary for your own subject.
Other words, e.g. issue and point have several generally important academic meanings.
The writer takes issue with Kwame's interpretation. [raises arguments against]
In your essay you should address a number of key issues. [topics]
Have you seen the latest issue of the Malaysian Medical Journal? [edition]
Jackson raises some interesting points in his article. [opinions, ideas, information]
The writer takes a long time to get to the point. [most significant part]



lf you come across a word that you think you know but it does not seem to make sense in that
context, check to see whether it has another distinct meaning. If so, write it down with both (or all)
its meanings in your vocabulary notebook.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Which meaning given in A does set have in these examples?


If you don't set to work immediately you won't finish the task by the end of term.
Before we start I'd like everyone to set their watches to precisely the same time.
Professors will set a date for the submission of assignments relating to their own courses.
We expected the mixture to set quickly but it had not hardened by the morning.
Before leaving the area, the retreating army set the farm buildings on fire.
The engine's performance has set a new fuel consumption record.
During the first semester, music students have to study a number of set pieces.
There are a whole set of issues that need to be discussed.

Choose a word from B to complete each sentence. Change the form if necessary.
1 When you are doing research it is sensible to keep good records of all your ..................................... .
as it can be difficult to locate sources later.
2 This medical condition is most likely to ..................................... in fair-skinned people.
3 In first gear the engine makes ten ...................................... for every ...................................... of the wheels.
4 Wealth, the theme of the anthology, is general enough to ...................................... a wide variety of
S The ................................. of society in Ancient Rome can be said to resemble that of the modern USA.
6 They carried out an experiment to check whether the gold ...................................... or expanded
under a range of different conditions.


Which word could fit in each of these sets of phrases?
1 discuss the following ......................................
underline the key ......................................
make some thoughtful ......................................
2 to ...................................... a precedent
a ...................................... of exercises
a ...................................... book


3 take ...................................... with
the latest ...................................... of the New Scientist
a controversial ..................................... .
4 a ...................................... of communication
the English ..................................... .
to ...................................... one's energies into

Read this text about some new medical software. For each underlined word give the
meaning in the text and one other meaning. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.
A simulator showing how outbreaks of infection might spread around the world would be
of great assistance in the struggle to contain such diseases. Researchers at the World Health
Organization maintain that to effectively confront emerging infectious diseases, they need
a significant amount of computing power. A global epidemic simulator would mimic climate
simulators which monitor the movement of weather systems. It would record where disease
outbreaks occur. where they are heading and, crucially, would allow scientists to test out
virtual mitigation measures to see which might work best on the ground.


Jokes are often based on words having several meanings. Explain this joke.

A neutron goes into a bar, orders a drink and asks how much it will be.
The barman replies: 'For you, sir, no charge.'


Look at a textbook on an academic subject of special interest to you. Look for some of the
words in this unit and decide which meaning they have in your text.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Metaphors and idioms
A metaphor is a way of using language which describes something by indirectly comparing
it to something else with similar characteristics. For example, you might sayan academic
'attacks' or 'demolishes' someone's theory or argument, just as an army can attack an enemy
or workers can demolish a building. If a metaphor is used so often that the original force
of the comparison is lost then it may be called an idiom. For example, people often use the
idiom 'I'm snowed under with work at the moment'. Originally this was a metaphor based
on the idea of a great deal of work having the characteristics of 'snow' (deep, overwhelming
everything else and making movement difficult). However, this expression has been lIsed so
frequently that it no longer gives people a mental picture of snow.

Metaphors and idioms referring to light and darkness
The present experimental data may shed (new) light on l the formation of the planets.
Views on depression have changed in (the) light or recent studies of the brain.
Novelists, poets and essayists often use history to ilIuminate 3 their understanding
of human behaviour. The book provides an illuminating discussion of how languages change.
Animal models can be used to elucidate 4 basic principles of the developmental origins of
adult diseases.
The report revealed the glaringS discrepancy between patients' needs and what the health
service can offer them, and highlighted 6 the need for a new approach.
The report shines a light on 7 the questions surrounding child care and provides crucial data.
Substance abuse continues to destroy individuals and communities, and researchers remain in
the dark 8 about what can ensure successful recovery from addiction.
The book dealt with economic policy in the shadow Of9 the Civil War of 1994-1999.
provide an explanation for it which makes it easier to understand. We can also say cast or
2 because of 3 show more clearly something that is difficult to understand
4 explain or make clear (from the Latin /ucidus meaning 'clear') 5 something bad that is very
obvious (to glare means to shine too brightly) 6 emphasised something important 7 focuses
on 8 continue in a state of not knowing something 9 in a situation where something bad has
happened or is happening

throw light on

Metaphors and idioms referring to war and conflict
Look at these extracts from lectures where the speakers use such metaphors and idioms.

'Critics opposed to D. H. Lawrence
attacked his novels on various
grounds, both trivial and important.
But despite the apparent diversity
of opinion, Lawrence's critics were
united on what they saw as several
serious problems.'




going back 2 a very powerful attack
forced to experience, subjected to

Academic Vocabulary in Use



'Ie's useful ae eh e presenr rime
to look atJapan's experience
in the battle against air
pollution, and it's a battle no
nation can afford to lose.'


'In the last two poems
we see the poet becoming
increasingly detached
from the material world,
retreating I more into his
own mind than before:


'Lawsuits can certainly
affect the value of a
company, and firms need
strategies to combat the
onslaught2 of lawsuits.'



'Parents and teachers
need to maintain a
united front3 on the
question of bad conduct
at school:



'In the last ten years or
so, children have been
bombarded with4
increasing amounts of
violence in the media.'

remain united in their opinions and agree on how to act

9. I

Choose a word from the box to complete each sentence.





1 The results of the investigation ............ ................. a light on the pressures of the global
economy on farmers in developing countries.
2 Until recently, scientists have ...................................... in the dark as to the causes of the disease, but
a recent breakthrough promises to ...................................... new light on the problem.
3 Our whole notion of time and space has changed in the ............... .................... of recent
developments in physics.
4 These communities have lived for decades in the ...................................... of poverty and social
S The collapse of the bridge ................ .................... the need for a more rigorous analysis of the
effects of constant traffic movements.
6 The team carried out a series of experiments in an attempt to .................................. the mysterious
processes at work in the organism.
7 The article helps to .... :...................... . .. for the ordinary reader some of the more difficult
references in Shakespeare's plays.
8 The professor found some ...................................... errors in one student's calculations.


Rewrite these sentences using metaphors of conflict instead of the underlined words.
1 Scientists who don't agree with this theory have recently attacked its basic assumptions.
2 Governments need to remain in complete agreement on the issue of economic migrants.
3 Nowadays, we get a huge number of advertisements every time we watch TV or open a
4 G. J. Frankin has recently moved away from the view that economic processes cannot be
altered, and is now moving towards a different approach.
S The efforts against crime will fail without police and community cooperation.
6 The protests were a response to the devastating sudden large number of trade restrictions
on small producers.


Look at this text and underline key words and phrases which construct the main metaphor:
'the human brain is a computer'.

Shutting down Alzheimer's
The human brain is a remarkably complex organic computer, taking in a wide variety of sensory ex·
periences, processing and storing this information, and recalling and integrating selected bits at the
right moments. The destruction caused by Alzheimer's disease has been likened to the erasure of a
hard drive, beginning with the most recent files and working backward. As the illness progresses,
old as well as new memories gradually disappear until even loved ones are no longer recognized.
Unfortunately, the computer analogy breaks down: one cannot simply reboot the human brain and
reload the files and programs. The problem is that Alzheimer's does not only erase information; it
destroys the very hardware of the brain, which is composed of more than 100 billion nerve cells


(neurons], with 100 trillion connections among them.

Look at some of the textbooks you use. Can you find any examples of metaphors or idioms
there relating to light and darkness or war and conflict?

Academic Vocabulary in Use



Nouns and the words they combine with
Nouns often combine with specific verbs, for example carry out research, pay attention, or
with specific adjectives, for example medical research, undivided attention.

Adjective + noun



adjectives that often combine with it



useful, valuable, personal, constant, close,
frequent, intermittent I

I made some useful contacts at the


considerable, heated 2, intense, public,
animated 3

After the lecture there was a heated

[= factor]

crucial, decisive, fundamental

Timing is a crucial element of the

[= parts]

conflicting, contrasting, constituent4

There are conflicting elements in the
artist's work.


excess, sufficient, nuclear

Wind turbines create sufficient energy
for the town's needs.


common, isolated, natural, recent, universal

Such anti-social behaviour is a recent


conflicting, (in)conclusive, unforeseen 5,
preliminar/, encouraging, interim 7

Our preliminary results were


decisive, challenging, conflicting, influential,
key, pivotal8

Student activists played a pivotal role in
the riot.


random, representative

A representative sample of the
population was surveyed.

in ... terms

absolute, broad, relative, general, practical,

People are better off in economic


alternative, efficient, fair, practical,
convenient, proper, acceptable

It is important to treat your research
subjects in a fair way.

from time to time 2 strong, often angry 3 lively
not expected 6 first 7 temporary 8 important


that combine to make something

Noun + verb
Most of the nouns in the table above are also strongly associated with specific verbs.
You can come into contact with someone or something or you can establish, maintain, break
off or lose contact.
Academics may engage in debate or contribute to a debate. You talk about the debate
surrounding an issue.
You can combine, differentiate or discern [recognise] the elements of a chemical compound.
You consume [use], conserve, generate [create], save or waste energy.
Phenomena emerge or occur and students will try to observe, investigate and then explain
those phenomena.
Academics collect, collate [organise] and publish their results. Sometimes results are
questioned or invalidated [shown to be wrong]. Occasionally they are even falsified!
Roles may be defined or strengthened. People or factors can playa role or take on a role.
You can take or provide or analyse a sample.
You can discover, devise [think up], work out or develop a way to do something.


Whenever you notice a noun that seems to be key as far as your own studies are concerned, write
it down with the adjectives and verbs it is typically associated with.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Answer these questions about the adjective + noun combinations in the table in A.
1 Put these types of contact in order of frequency - frequent, constant, intermittent.
2 Which of these is a representative sample and which is a random sample: a sample chosen
by chance, a sample chosen as typical of the population as a whole?
3 Which adjective describes the opposite of a common phenomenon?
4 Would you be pleased if you did some research and got inconclusive results?
5 What adjective other than key can be used with role to give a similar meaning?
6 Which suggests that there is more energy - excess or sufficient energy?
7 Can you name three people who play an influential role in a child's development?
8 If two of the four constituent elements of most language exams are reading and speaking,
what are the other two?


Fill in the gaps in these sentences with a verb from B. Change the form where necessary.
1 I first ...................................... into contact with Abdul when I started my doctoral research in 1987.
2 The country ...................................... so much energy that we don't ................................... enough to meet all
our needs.
3 The space race ...................................... an important role in post-war politics.
4 In her research project Diana ...................................... the phenomenon of extra-sensory perception
but she was not able to come to any significant conclusions.
5 Although Hans's rivals attempted to ...................................... his results, they met with no success.
6 Green's poetry successfully ...................................... elements from a number of different traditions.


Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.


It took the team a long time to devise
During the war we had to break
There has been a lot of heated debate
Ian Hartmann was invited to take on
Part of my role was to collate
The doctor wanted me to provide
Scientists all over the world contributed
A new and unexpected phenomenon
Using shading helps to differentiate

surrounding the issue of global warming.
a blood sample for analysis.
the role of project leader.
to the debate on cloning.
off contact with colleagues abroad.
seems to be emerging.
the key elements in a graph.
a way to solve their problem.
the results of our experiments.

Choose the best word from the box to fill each of the gaps.






She obtained her results by ........
............ a ....... .................. . sample of the population.
Before we go any further we must ...................................... each of our roles more precisely.
We must decide what is the ...................................... way to proceed, in ...................................... terms.
The group succeeded in ...................................... contact long after they had all left college.
My trip to Africa was the ...................................... element in my decision to work in conservation.
Specialists in the field of bio-engineering have been ...................................... in ...... .............
on this issue for some time.
7 I am told that Smythe is about to ...................................... some ..................................... results.
8 Professor Powell was able to ............................ some ...................................... elements in different
accounts of the incident.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Adjective and noun combinations
This unit focuses on a number of adjective + noun combinations which are particularly frequent
in academic contexts.

Adjectives suggesting importance


some of the nouns it frequently goes with


significant can convey the same meaning and
both adjectives often go with these nouns

aspect, contribution. difference. implications.
point, question. reason, element


can also mean large in size and as such goes
with these nouns

increase. reduction. number. proportion


the opposite. minor, also often goes with
these nouns

role, changes. problem. factor. issue. concern.
difference. theme. contribution. point


enormous can mean very large or very
important; considerable means large or of
noticeable importance (i.e. slightly less strong
than enormous)

amount, expansion. number. range.
diversity. difference. variation, extent,
degree. impact. power. influence.
significance. interest


means special

interest. attention. significance. importance,

Note that a feature of academic writing is that it often uses an adjective + noun phrase to
suggest importance of some kind instead of just using an adjective, e.g. Marx's contribution
is of particular significance instead of Marx's contribution is very significant.

Adjectives suggesting frequency
Widespread means that something happens in many places or among many people. It often
combines with such nouns as belief, acceptance, support, opposition, assumption, use. For
example, There is widespread support for government policy in urban areas.
Common can mean frequent. With this meaning it often combines with such nouns as
experience, practice, use, concern. For example, It is increasingly common practice for UK
teenagers to take a gap year before entering university.
Note that common can also mean 'shared' and as such it combines with knowledge, ground,
feature, interest. For example, There is much common ground between the two writers.
Specific means relating to one thing and not to things in general. It often combines with
context, information, case, type, form, purpose, characteristics, conditions, example. For
example, The reaction occurs only under specific conditions.

Other useful adjective and noun combinations
Inevitable is often used with words relating to results or changes such as consequence,
outcome, collapse, decline, conflict, effect, developments. [unavoidable]
Explicit combines with words relating to how things are presented, e.g. reference, statement,
comparison, account, mention. [clear and exact, communicated directly]
Relevant combines with words relating to evidence of different types, e.g. data, documents,
information, details, factors. [connected with what is heing discussed]


Academic Vocabulary in Use

I I. I

Look at these statements about some academics. Complete each sentence with an
appropriate adjective or noun. There may be more than one answer.
Davison did a considerable ...................................... of research into earthquake prediction.
.................. attention to the problem of energy consumption.
Rawlinson drew
Werner's work had an enormous ...................................... on the way we design bridges today.
...... proportion of Thomaz's work was devoted to international law. Three
of her five books were on the subject.
S Prestyn made only a ...................................... contribution to modern psychology, but it was an
interesting one, nonetheless.
6 Baklov's work has some extremely .................................... implications for our work today.


I 1.2

Rewrite the sentences using adjectives from the opposite page instead of the words in bold.
1 There is opposition among students in many places to the idea of longer semesters.
2 The destruction of the riverbank will cause a decline which is bound to happen in the
numbers of small mammals.
3 School standards are a concern which occurs frequently among parents nowadays.
4 Nowhere in the article does the author make mention in a direct, clear and exact way
of the 20 cases which were never resolved.
S There is very little ground which is shared between the two ways of addressing the
6 The paper is too general and lacks examples which relate only to individual things.




Make sure you know the noun forms of these adjectives. Write them in the table. Use a
dictionary if necessary.












The sentences below came from lectures. Adapt them for use in an academic article by
replacing the phrases in bold. In each case use an adjective from the box combined with a
noun from 11.3 to make a phrase like of great interest.






Johnson's work is very relevant for any student of medical engineering.
The research will be very valuable to anyone interested in economic planning.
It was an event which was terribly important in the history of Latin American politics.
Partich's book is an extremely broad work.
Sorlan's book was a very significant work in the development of political theory.
This software will be quite useful in the analysis of large amounts of numerical data.
The method she outlines is very interesting to anyone investigating sleeplessness.
'You know' is an expression which is very frequent in informal spoken English.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Verbs and the words they combine with
How verbs combine with other words
You should note a number of things about verbs in an academic context, in particular:
• any nouns often used with the verb and whether the noun goes before or after the verb,
for example, the research/theory is based on, to pose a problem/question/threat
• any adverbs often used with the verb, for example, mainly/partly/loosely based
• any prepositions following the verb, for example, to base something on something else
• if the verb is often used in the passive, for example, be based on, be associated with.





base (on)

research. theory.
story. hypothesis

mainly. partly

The story was loosely based on a true event
which occurred in 1892. The theory is mainly
based on the writer's initial study.


word. idea.
theory. term


A decrease in consumer spending is generally
associated with fears of instability. The word is
commonly associated with youth culture.


idea. problem.
issue. question.
topic. theme

at length. briefly.

Wilson and Crick (1965) discuss the problem
at length. 5im's article discusses the issue



firmly. clearly.

Geologists have been unable to firmly establish
a connection between the two types of fossils.
Lopez conclusively establishes a relationship
between the two phenomena.


facts. evidence.
effects. aspects

briefly. critically.

We shall now briefly examine the evidence
for the existence of dark matter. Our aim is to
thoroughly examine the effects of stress.


need. effects.


The study clearly demonstrates the
importance of support for dementia sufferers.
Harvey's work convincingly demonstrates
the need for a new approach to the problem.

(with) (often
used in

causes. factors.
issues. properties.
needs. approach.

correctly. clearly.

This approach is closely identified with the
work of H. Crowley during the I950s.The article
clearly identifies the factors influencing the
decision to go to war.

More verbs in combination with nouns, adverbs and prepositions
• pose - This inevitably poses a question concerning the stability of society. Parks poses a
challenge to Kahn's theory.
• suggest - The most recent results strongly suggest a different interpretation of the
situation. The article suggests a new approach to the problem.
• list - Here I simply list the main hypotheses/causeslfeatures/characteristics; they will be
examined in detail below.
• refer - The book refers frequently/specifically/in passing to the 1956 economic crisis.
• observe -This is due to the changes/trends/differences we observed earlier.
Remember. we say based on. NOT besetJ-ffl. We discuss a problem I an issue, NOT discuss oOOttt
a problem I an issue.

Note any verb + preposition combinations that differ from those of your first language.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Choose the most appropriate adverb for the verb in bold, and add it to the sentence. Note
the word order used on the opposite page.
1 Paulson's research demonstrated the need for a new approach to the study of stress.
2 As was observed, there is a strong correlation between house prices and inflation.
3 In the study of language, 'tense' refers to the coding of time in the form of the verb.
4 Classical liberal economics is identified with the theories of Milton Friedman.
5 Chapter 1 discusses the main issues, but they are dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 2.
6 To date, no research exists that establishes a connection between behaviour, personality
traits, and leadership traits.
7 SENTA is a computer programming language based on Logo.
8 Social research techniques were applied to examine the effects of the policy on the poor.


Complete each sentence with a suitable noun. There may be more than one answer.
1 Here we list again the main ...................................... of the present study and show which have been
proven and which have been rejected.
2 The graph enables us to observe recent broad ...................................... in mortality rates.
3 The researchers concluded that it is still difficult to identify the ...................................... of the timerelated changes in human beings that we call ageing.
4 A seminar was held to discuss the ...................................... of children's rights in the light of the
Convention on the Rights of the Child.
5 Wu demonstrated the ...................................... for a comprehensive plan in preparation for a pandemic.



Complete each sentence with three possible nouns. Use a dictionary if necessary.
1 These figures lead me to suggest an alternative (1) ............................. (2) .......................... (3) ............................. .
2 It is clear that these developments pose a new (1) ............................. (2) ............................. (3) ............................. .
3 Before we reach any conclusion, it is important to examine the (1) ............................. (2) ............................ .
(3) ............................. .


Underline useful verb + adverb combinations in this text.
The world is facing a looming water crisis. Disputes over allocatian have steadily increased in
the last decade, and demand has grown rapidly. Water is likely to generate the same degree of
controversy in the 2P' century as oil did in the 20"'. If we take no action now, new conflicts are likely
to occur periodically around the world. At the moment, instead of seeking solutions which directly
address multiple needs, countries focus a little too narrowly on local issues and typically opt for
expensive and inferior solutions. What is needed are decisions which can be quickly implemented
and a debate which will seriously consider more than the short term needs of individual states.


Use one of the combinations you underlined in 12.4 to complete each sentence.

Various measures were introduced last year to ...................................... the issue of identity theft.
The justice system needs to ...................................... the impact of a prison sentence on offenders.
The number of university applications has been ...................................... over the last 50 years.
The article ...................................... on one angle of the problem rather than taking a broad view.
5 The suggested measures shouid be ...................................... to avoid further problems.
AcademicVacabu!ary in Use



Prepositional phrases
Notice the prepositional phrases in the texts below.

A book review
------------ - -------- ------------------------------~

The Guide to the Semi-Colon in English was written by Keith Pedant in conjunction
with' a team of researchers at Boardham University. In comparison with2 previous
works on the semi-colon, this is a very substantial volume. In addition to the
main text there are a number of appendices. These are to some extent 3 the most
useful parts of the book as, in line with4 modern linguistic practice, they provide
a wealth of real data. In spite of s its potentially dry topic, the book contains many
fascinating examples, in the sections dealing with the history of the semi-colon
in particular. With the exception of 6 the final chapter, this book may be of some
interest to the general reader as well as the specialist but on the whole 7 is mainly
for those who have a professional interest in punctuation marks.

, working together with 2 same meaning as in contrast to 3 notice also to a greater/lesser/
certain extent 4 following, same meaning as in accordance with S despite, not prevented by
6 not including (NB NOT e:xeept) 7 generally

A talk to a genealogy club
Chairperson: Now, at this stage' in the proceedings it's my pleasure to introduce our speaker
tonight, Dr Anna Klein, the country's leading family history specialist. Anna,
I'd like to welcome you on behalf of2 all our members.
Anna Klein: Thank you. My own interest in the subject came about as a result of
discovering some old letters in the attic at home. I found them by chance3 •
They'd been written by some relatives who'd emigrated to Canada a hundred
years or so before and for me, as a ten-year-old then, they were by far4 the
most exciting things I had ever read. They were, for the most partS, extremely
well-written and, from then all, I was determined to learn as much as I could
about my family. In other words 6 , I had started out on my genealogical
journey. In some ways, I was very lucky. I was able to collect quite a bit of key
family information on the basis of the old letters and this enabled me to track
down some relations living in Montreal. They, in turn, provided some contacts
with Australian cousins and so it continued. In the process, I've learnt a great
how to approach
deal, not only about my own family, but also in terms
tracing one's family. In most respects 8 it's been a thoroughly enjoyable
adventure though there have been some difficult moments ...


, now, also at this point 2 representing (NB NOT on the part of) 3 accidentally 4 very much
S generally 6 to express something differently, often more simply 7 as far as (how to approach ... )
was concerned 8 considering most aspects of the experience
Note that on the one hand and on the other hand are used to contrast two different
ways of looking at an issue. On the one hand flying is much more convenient than going by
train, but on the other hand, train travel is often much more interesting.


Academic Vocabulary in Use


Complete the prepositional phrases as used in these press announcements.

Professor Soltero said that, ............................. line
...................... government guidelines, the researchers
had consulted local people.


1986; ~~;;':~~ ::~~~n~db';;~;~:~ S:Uu_:~_
.:; jl
, now, Dr Peters stated.
. .- -


~..~.~~~.~~.~~~~.~.~..~~~..~.~es~::, ~~:p:::::!~~a;ake 1·
strong claims about the drug.
...... .



wi . . .


Professor Karpal said that, ....... .. ................. the basis
........................... , her studies so far, she was optimistic
that a cure for the disease would be found .


Lauren Charles said that, .........................................................
whole, social conditions had improved since the
report, especially ............................. terms ......................... jobs
and housing for the poorer sectors.




Dr Leiman said that while ............................. the
. .... .. .......... hand the government wanted to
encourage research, ......... . .. ....... the ............................ .
hand they were reducing funding for universities.




Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.
1 The conclusions are fair in

2 Dr Carr's team got the grant, in


The Professor said that he was delighted to accept
the award ............................. behalf ............................. the whole
( university.

We had little money to spare; in
We need people's personal data, in
We made an important discovery; in
This latest paper is quite short in
The Indian study was carried out in

some ways it was sheer luck.
conjunction with an American project.
comparison with other articles in the series.
spite of being the smallest team to apply.
most respects, though some are questionable.
other words, we were underfunded.
particular their parents' history of illnesses.

Read this paragraph about the discovery of dinosaurs. In each sentence there is one error in
the use of a prepositional phrase. Correct each error.
A bone discovered on chance in the 17th century was the beginning
of the search for dinosaurs. From then in, Scientists and the public
have been faSCinated by these creatures. In accordance to beliefs
at that time, the initial discovery was thought to be the bone of a human giant.
However, in 1824, a scientist, William Buckland, calculated that the bone
belonged to a 12-metre, flesh-eating reptile and named it Megalosaurus, on the
process giving us the first of the wonderful list of exotic names for dinosaurs.
The 17th century discovery had, on turn, led to a series of further finds around
that time. All these at a greater or lesser extent confirmed Buckland 's theories.
For far the biggest dinosaur discovered to date was probably over 40 metres
long. To the most part, dinosaurs ranged from the size of a chicken to that of a
giraffe. At most respects, what we know about their habits is still very limited.
What we do know is at least on some extent based on pure speculation.


Use a dictionary to find an example sentence using each of these phrases: on the one hand, on
the other hand, on behalf of, with the exception of, except. Write them out and then add one more
sentence for each one relating to your own academic discipline.

Academic Vocabulary in Use


Verbs and prepositions
Verbs with