Main Academic Vocabulary in Use Edition With Answers
You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me
Most frequently terms
I had to say thank you! But some contexts are omitted.
13 September 2021 (04:03)
the best version of Academic Vocabulary in Use
29 September 2021 (18:11)
The book is corrupted. Missing some of the content.
10 November 2021 (13:51)
Ne wE dit ion in Use Vocabulary reference and practice Self-study and classroom use Second Edition Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell Academic Vocabulary in Use Vocabulary reference and practice Self-study and classroom use Second Edition Michael McCarthy Felicity O’Dell University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA 477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia 314–321, 3rd Floor, Plot 3, Splendor Forum, Jasola District Centre, New Delhi – 110025, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107591660 © Cambridge University Press 2016 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2008 Second edition 2016 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-1-107-59166-0 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Contents Acknowledgements To the student and the teacher 0 Before you start Getting started: General academic vocabulary 1 What is special about 5 6 8 10 academic English? 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Key nouns 12 Key verbs 14 Key adjectives 16 Key adverbs 18 Phrasal verbs in academic English 20 Key quantifying expressions 22 Words with several meanings 24 Metap; hors and idioms 26 Word combinations 10 Nouns and the words they 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 combine with 28 Adjective and noun combinations 30 Verbs and the words they combine with 32 Prepositional phrases 34 Verbs and prepositions 36 Nouns and prepositions 38 Chunks: useful phrases 40 Abbreviations and affixes 42 Academic life 18 Applications and application forms 19 The social and academic environment 20 Academic courses 21 E-learning 22 Study habits and skills 23 Money and education 44 46 48 50 52 Planning and starting work 24 Identifying goals 25 Planning a piece of work 26 Describing methods 27 Using sources Thinking and interacting 28 Analysing data 29 Talking about ideas 30 Reporting what others say 31 Talking about meaning 32 Talking about points of view Ways of talking about … 33 Numbers 34 Statistics 35 Graphs and diagrams 36 Time 37 Cause and effect 38 Classifying Organising and presenting ideas 39 Structuring an argument 40 Organising your writing 41 Processes and procedures 42 Facts, evidence and data 43 Making connections 44 Describing problems 45 Describing situations 46 Comparing and contrasting 47 Evaluation and emphasis 48 Describing change 49 Summarising and concluding 50 Making a presentation 56 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 88 90 92 94 96 98 100 102 104 106 108 54 Academic Vocabulary in Use 3 Reading and vocabulary 1 Nutrition for elite athletes 110 2 The solar system 111 3 Graphology 112 4 Measuring time 113 5 Archaeology and medicine 114 6 Seeing things differently 115 Reference 4 1 Formal and informal academic words and expressions 116 2 Numbers, units of measurement and common symbols 120 3 British and North American academic vocabulary 122 4 Spelling variations 126 5 Word formation 128 Answer key 132 Phonemic symbols 162 Index 163 Academic Vocabulary in Use Acknowledgements The authors wish to thank Helen Freeman, Chris Capper and Sheila Dignen for their invaluable intellectual and editorial support during the course of the preparation of this new edition. We must also thank the lexicography and computational team at Cambridge University Press whose work with the Cambridge International Corpus, the Cambridge Learner Corpus and the CANCODE corpus of spoken English (developed at the University of Nottingham in association with Cambridge University Press), enabled us to make a fully corpus-informed selection of the academic vocabulary we focus on in these materials. We acknowledge with gratitude the pioneering work on academic word lists done by Averil Coxhead. In planning this book we made considerable use of her lists at http://www. victoria.ac.nz/lals/resources/academicwordlist/ We also acknowledge the work of Annette Capel and the English Vocabulary Profile. The EVP enabled us to select vocabulary appropriate to the level. Michael McCarthy and Felicity O’Dell Development of this publication has made use of the Cambridge English Corpus, a multi-billion word collection of spoken and written English. It includes the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a unique collection of candidate exam answers. Cambridge University Press has built up the Cambridge English Corpus to provide evidence about language use that helps to produce better language teaching materials. The authors and publishers acknowledge the following sources of copyright material and are grateful for the permissions granted. While every effort has been made, it has not always been possible to identify the sources of all the material used, or to trace all copyright holders. If any omissions are brought to our notice, we will be happy to include the appropriate acknowledgements on reprinting and in the next update to the digital edition, as applicable. New Scientist for the text on p. 25 adapted from ‘Simulator could predict where epidemics will strike next’, New Scientist, 30.03.2006. Copyright © 2006 Reed Business Information UK. All rights reserved. Distributed by Tribune Media Services; Scientific American for the text on p. 27 adapted from ‘Shutting Down Alzheimers’ by Michael S. Wolfe, Scientific American. Reproduced with permission. Copyright © (2006) Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved; Nature Publishing Group for the text on p. 39 adapted from ‘Abridged Extract timing is life and death’, Nature, Vol 441, no. 7089, 04.05.2006. Copyright © 2006 Nature Publishing Group. Reproduced with permission; Text on p. 110 adapted from J. Anderson, Colorado State University Extension foods and nutrition specialist and professor; S. Perryman, CSU Extension foods and nutrition specialist; L. Young, former foods and nutrition graduate student; and S. Prior, former graduate intern, food science and human nutrition. Reviewed and revised, July, 2015 by Colorado State University Jessica Clifford, Research Associate and Extension Specialist and K. Maloney, graduate student in the Dept. of Food Science Human Nutrition; Dunedin Academic Press Ltd for the text on p. 111 adapted from ‘Introducing the planets and their moons’ by Peter Cattermole. Reproduced with permission from Cattermole Introducing the Planets and their Moons (Dunedin, Edinburgh, 2014); Text on p. 112 adapted from David Crystal, The Cambridge Encyclopedia of Language 2nd Edition, 1997, © David Crystal 1997, published by Cambridge University Press, adapted and reproduced with permission of the author and publisher; Scientific American for the text on p. 113 adapted from ‘A Chronicle of timekeeping’ by William J. H. Andrews, Scientific American, Vol 23. Reproduced with permission. Copyright © (2014) Scientific American, Inc. All rights reserved; Text on p. 114 adapted from Patricia A. Baker, The Archaeology of Medicine in the Greco-Roman World, 2013, © Patricia A. Baker 2013, published by Cambridge University Press, adapted and reproduced with permission of the author and publisher; Text on p. 115 adapted from ‘Seeing Things Differently’ by Shaaron Ainsworth, RSA Journal, Issue 2. Copyright © 2014 RSA Journal. Reproduced with permission of Shaaron Ainsworth. Photographs p. 20: © Lars Wallin/Etsa Images/Corbis; p. 21: Plume Creative/Getty Images; p. 35: kikujungboy/ Shutterstock; p. 36: © Radius Images/Corbis; p. 54 (photo 1): picamaniac/Shutterstock; p. 54 (photo 2): payaercan/Getty Images; p. 54 (photo 3): © YAY Media AS/Alamy; p. 64: © Ken Welsh/ Alamy; p. 70: © Radius Images/Alamy; p. 71: © Michael Ochs/Corbis; p. 80: © Wavebreak Media Ltd/Alamy; p. 108: © moodboard/Corbis. Illustrations Kamae Design pp. 40, 41, 46, 52, 76, 77, 78, 79. Academic Vocabulary in Use 5 To the student and the teacher Who is this book for? This book is for anyone who wants or needs to learn the kind of English which is used in academic contexts. It deals with the language used in written works such as textbooks and journal articles as well as with the spoken language of lectures and seminars. It also presents vocabulary relating to being a student at a university or college in that it covers topics relating to university life. It will be particularly useful for students preparing for IELTS, the Pearson Academic English Test or any other examination aimed at assessing whether candidates’ English is at a high enough level to study in an institution where English is the medium of instruction. It will be helpful for people who need to attend – or indeed give – lectures or presentations in English or to participate in international conferences. It will enable students who have to prepare assignments or write up a dissertation in English to do so in a much more natural and appropriate way. What kind of vocabulary does the book deal with? The book presents and practises the kind of vocabulary that is used in academic contexts regardless of which discipline you are specialising in. So it considers words and expressions like concept, put forward a theory and come to a conclusion. It does not deal with the specialist vocabulary of any particular subject such as anatomy or physics. Specialist terms are often relatively easy to master – they will be explained and taught as you study the subject and indeed these words may sometimes be similar in English and your own language. However, it is the more general vocabulary used for discussing ideas and research and for talking and writing about academic work that you need to be familiar with in order to feel comfortable in an academic environment. Despite the fact that such vocabulary items are much more frequent than specialist vocabulary, they are often felt to be more difficult to learn. It is, therefore, useful to approach them in the systematic way suggested by this book. One positive aspect of academic vocabulary is that there are relatively few differences, depending on whether you are studying in London or New York, Delhi or Sydney, Johannesburg, Dublin, Wellington, Toronto or Singapore or indeed any other place where you may be using English for academic purposes. Academic English tends to be a truly international language and the units of the book focus on vocabulary that will be essential for you regardless of where you are studying now or where you may be likely to study in the future. There are some differences between words used to describe people and places and these are highlighted in Unit 19. Reference sections 3 and 4 also focus on some vocabulary and spelling variations. In the units of the book we use British English spelling conventions, except when quoting texts which originally used American spellings. Much of the vocabulary used in the book is neutral in that it is equally appropriate in both written and spoken contexts. We indicate those instances where a word is too formal to be used in speech or too informal to use in academic writing. How was the vocabulary for the book selected? The academic vocabulary focused on in this book was all selected from language identified as significant by the Cambridge International Corpus of written and spoken English and also the CANCODE corpus of spoken English developed at the University of Nottingham in association with Cambridge University Press. These enormous corpora include large collections of written and spoken academic text and so it was possible to identify language that is distinctive for academic contexts. We also made considerable use of the Cambridge Learner Corpus, a corpus of more than 60 million words of text taken from hundreds of thousands of learner scripts from students taking Cambridge English exams all over the world. From this corpus we were able to learn what kinds of errors students taking, for example, IELTS, were typically making. In planning this book we made considerable use of Averil Coxhead’s work on developing academic wordlists. Her lists can be found at, for example, http://www.uefap.com/vocab/select/ awl.htm 6 Academic Vocabulary in Use How is the book organised? Each unit consists of two pages. The left-hand page presents the academic vocabulary to be focused on in the unit. You will usually find words and expressions presented in context with, where appropriate, any special notes about their meaning and usage. The right-hand page checks that you have understood the information on the presentation page by giving you a series of exercises to complete. The units are organised into different sections: The book begins with a Unit Zero called Before you start. The first section then includes nine units which look at basic aspects of academic vocabulary such as what is special about academic vocabulary, key verbs and key quantifying expressions. The second section devotes eight units to how words typically combine with one another in academic English. The third section has six units focusing on aspects of life in academic institutions. The fourth section provides four units considering aspects of planning and starting a piece of work and the fifth consists of five units relating to thinking and interacting. The sixth section has six units dealing with ways of talking about different concepts such as numbers, time and cause and effect. The seventh section includes twelve units covering aspects of the organisation and presentation of ideas. Towards the end of the book you will find six reading texts relating to different academic disciplines with exercises based on the vocabulary in those texts. We hope you will find these useful examples of how to use texts to expand your knowledge of academic vocabulary in English and would recommend that you read these texts and do the exercises on them even if they relate to an academic subject that is very different from your own. There are five reference sections dealing with some key areas where we felt it would be useful for you to have lists of items that could not be presented as fully in the main body of the book, i.e. Formal and informal academic words and expressions, Numbers, units of measurement and common symbols, British and North American academic vocabulary, Spelling variations and Word formation. Where appropriate, these reference sections provide space for you to add further examples of your own. At the end of the book there is a Key with answers to all the exercises and an Index of all the key words and expressions, indicating the units where they can be found. The pronunciation is provided for standard British English. Do Unit Zero first followed by Unit 1 What is special about academic English? Then work through the remaining units in any order that suits you. So, good luck with your work on academic English. We hope that the materials in this book will help you to enjoy and to benefit fully from your studies. We hope that you will be able to share ideas in a creative, exciting way with scholars from all over the world and we wish you the very best for a successful and rewarding academic life. Academic Vocabulary in Use 7 0 A Before you start What do I need • a notebook or file – to write down the vocabulary that you study in this book as well as words and expressions that you come across elsewhere • some good dictionaries We strongly recommend the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary as this contains exactly the kind of information you need in order to be able to understand and use English vocabulary. Through its example sentences it shows you how the word is used and which other words it typically combines with. The dictionary also helps you with difficult items such as phrasal verbs indicating, for example, whether the object can come before the particle (set up the apparatus, set the apparatus up, go through a set of calculations but not go a set of calculations through). The dictionary is available in both paper and electronic versions and can be accessed online at http://dictionary.cambridge.org. You will need a specialist dictionary relating to your own subject area as well. Your teacher may also be able to recommend other dictionaries for your specific needs. B What should I note about new vocabulary? Here are some things to note – though it won’t be appropriate to note them all for all words you come across. • examples of the word or expression in use • typical word combinations - you might, for example, note down adjectives or verbs typically associated with a noun that you want to learn or nouns, adverbs or prepositions associated with a verb • any special features of the word (e.g. is there anything special about its grammar or pronunciation or is it particularly characteristic of either written or spoken English?) • any other information that might help you to learn the word (e.g. is it similar to any word in your own language or does it share a root with a word you already know?) • any additional vocabulary that learning this word may help with (e.g. does a verb have a related noun or what is the opposite of an adjective?) • any other uses of the word (e.g. can it be used metaphorically or does it have any other meanings in the way that so many English words do?) preliminary inconclusive Diagrams can be useful, for example, word bubbles: results to interpret to analyse or word forks: C to identify the origin causes factors suggest demonstrate a common an isolated a universal phenomenon What else can I do to improve my vocabulary? As well as working through the units in this book, read as much English as you can in the subject areas that are most relevant to you. If you are new to studying in English, you could start by reading a textbook aimed at students who are at a slightly lower level than you are as far as the subject area is concerned; or you might prefer to read the latest articles in your field from a journal on the internet. There is an enormous wealth of material available online for you to study and learn from. Try the websites of universities and other academic institutions which have extensive websites, for example, or blogs written by specialists in your field. Don’t forget that, as well as written texts, you can find plenty of lectures and other listening materials online too. 8 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 0.1 Answer the questions about what you will use to help you learn new words. 1 Where do you plan to note down vocabulary – a notebook, a folder, an electronic file…? 2 What dictionaries (printed or online) are there relating to your own special subject? 3 What other good dictionaries are there that will be useful for you, e.g. a good bilingual dictionary? 0.2 Look up the following words in a good dictionary and note them down with any of the relevant types of information listed in B opposite. 1 university 2 academic 3 degree I hope to go to university next year. (example of the word in use) 0.3 Look up the following phrasal verbs. Note down where the object an interesting expression can go. 1 look up 2 note down 3 come across look up an interesting expression, look an interesting expression up 0.4 Complete the word forks. Use a dictionary if necessary. 2 (adjectives) 1 (verbs) higher to carry out education an experiment 0.5 Complete the word bubbles. Use a dictionary to help you. assignment 0.6 journal Do the following tasks to help you explore academic vocabulary on the internet. 1 Check out a university website e.g. the University of Cambridge at http://www.cam.ac.uk Massachusetts Institute of Technology at http://web.mit.edu the University of Sydney at http://sydney.edu.au the University of Cape Town at http://www.uct.ac.za Note down the different kinds of information you can find there. 2 Put lecture and the name of your subject e.g. lecture psychology into a search engine. Make a note of any interesting links it takes you to. 3 Put blog and the name of your subject e.g. blog law into a search engine. Check out some of the links it suggests. Make a note of any that look as if they may be worth reading regularly. Academic Vocabulary in Use 9 1 A What is special about academic English? Everyday words and academic uses Many words in academic English are the same as everyday vocabulary, but they are often used with a slightly different meaning, which may be specialised. everyday use Standards of discipline in schools have declined. Underline your family name on the form. The lake was frozen solid. B meaning ability to control yourself or other people draw a line under it not liquid or gas academic use Nanotechnology is a relatively new discipline. The research underlines the value of case studies. We have no solid evidence that radiation has caused the problem. meaning area of study gives emphasis to certain or safe; of a good standard Vocabulary and academic style In writing, academics use many neutral expressions. They also use rather formal expressions which are not common in everyday language. Knowing whether an expression is formal or just neutral is important. neutral in short, briefly, basically only almost, more or less more formal in sum, to sum up, fundamentally sole(ly) virtually neutral try mainly, mostly typical of more formal attempt primarily characteristic of However, very informal vocabulary may be used in spoken academic styles in classes and lectures. Learn to understand informal language when you hear it but be careful not to use it in essays and written assignments. Here are some examples of teachers using informal language. ‘OK. Have a shot at doing task number 3.’ [more formal: Try/Attempt to do ... ] ‘There’s no way schools can be held responsible for failures of government policy.’ [more formal: Schools cannot in any way be held ... ] Academic language tries to be clear and precise, so it is important to keep a vocabulary notebook (see page 8) and learn the differences between similar words, as well as typical word combinations (underlined here). The building is a prime example of 1920s architecture. [excellent in quality or value] The group’s primary concern is to protect human rights. [main; most important] C Noun phrases Academic language often uses complex noun phrases. For example, instead of saying Radiation was accidentally released over a 24-hour period, damaging a wide area for a long time, an academic might say The accidental release of radiation over a 24-hour period caused widespread long-term damage. It is therefore important to learn the different forms of a word, for example: noun accident quantity/quantification verb quantify Finally, be aware of ‘chunks’ or phrases which occur frequently, and learn them as whole units. Examples: in terms of, in addition to, for the most part, in the case of, etc. (See Unit 16). 10 Academic Vocabulary in Use adjective(s) accidental quantitative/quantifiable adverb(s) accidentally quantitatively/quantifiably Language help Using complex noun phrases improves your writing style and can contribute to higher grades in essays and assignments. Exercises 1.1 The words in the box each have an everyday use and an academic use. Complete each pair of sentences using the same word in the correct form. generate turn solid confirm identify underline character pose nature focus pose 1 She loves to for photographs in front of her fabulous house. pose The events a threat to stability in the region. 2 The photograph was useless. It was blurred and out of Child poverty should be the of our attention in the coming years. 3 I went online and my flight reservation. The data the hypothesis that animal-lovers enjoy better health. 4 The power plant electricity for the whole region. This issue always a great deal of debate among academics. 5 The murderer was from fingerprints discovered at the scene. In this theory of history, progress is closely with technology. 6 I saw her to her husband and whisper something in his ear. Let us now to the subject of social networking. 7 He always every new word when he’s reading. The study the fact that very little research exists. 8 The liquid became as the temperature was lowered. The study lacks evidence and its conclusions are questionable. 1.2 Rewrite the underlined words using more formal words and phrases from B opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 1.3 The book is mainly concerned with the problem of policing the internet. Almost every school in the county had reported problems with the new system. The work of the Institute is not only devoted to cancer research. Basically, we believe we have demonstrated a significant link between the two events. Several research teams have had a shot at solving the problem, without success. The reaction is typical of the way large corporations keep control of their markets. Read the text and answer the questions. 1 Underline two verbs followed by adverbs which it would be useful to learn as pairs. 2 Underline two adverbs next to each other which it would be useful to learn together. 3 What are the noun forms of the verbs produce, rely, discover and claim? 4 A novel is a kind of book, but what does the adjective novel mean here? 1.4 The production of plastics depends heavily on petroleum, but a novel way of making plastics out of sugar could reduce our reliance on oil. The discovery that a chemical in sugar can be converted relatively easily into a substance similar in structure to the material obtained from petroleum has led to the claim that plastics could soon be produced cheaply by the new method. Complete the second sentence using a noun phrase. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 People who investigated the problem biologically came to no firm conclusions. Biological investigations of the problem came to no firm conclusions. 2 When they developed antibiotics, it revolutionised medicine. The antibiotics caused a in medicine. 3 They solved the problem by altering the deck of the bridge. The to the problem was an to the deck of the bridge. 4 Exploring Antarctica has always been especially challenging. The of Antarctica has always presented special . Over to you Look at an academic text you have read recently and underline pairs of words which you think it would be useful to learn and remember together. Academic Vocabulary in Use 11 2 Key nouns This unit focuses on some important nouns in academic English. See also Units 10, 11 and 15. A General nouns referring to ideas She wrote an article on the subject of class. [thing which is being discussed, considered or studied] The theme of the poem is emigration. [main subject of a talk, book, etc.] The students were given a list of essay topics. [specific subjects that someone discusses or writes about] There was a lively debate on the issue of globalisation. [important subject or problem] Political theory is a popular undergraduate subject. Einstein’s theory of gravitation has been questioned recently. [statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or, more generally, an opinion or explanation] The model of climate change presented in the Stern Review seems to be becoming a reality. [description of a system or process which explains how it works] The book is called ‘The Nature of Intelligence’. [basic character of something] Human behaviour is based on the principle of least effort. [basic idea or rule that explains how something happens or works] B More specific nouns connected with ideas and phenomena Repetition is an important aspect of speech development in children. [one individual part of a situation, problem, subject, etc.] Automatic backup is a feature of the new software. [a typical quality that something has] The political motives for the government’s actions are beyond the scope of this essay. [range of a subject covered by a book, discussion, class, etc.] The study revealed a pattern of results. [a regularly repeated arrangement] During 2005, the number of violent attacks increased to an alarming degree. [amount or level] C Nouns referring to ways of thinking, processes and activities Read these titles of academic books and articles. Note the key nouns and their prepositions. Micro-organisms in water: their signiﬁcance1 and identiﬁcation2 The Case4 for Change: Rethinking Teacher Education. Towards a New Approach5 Renewable energy: a critical assessment3 of recent research 6 Citizens’ Views on Healthcare Systems in the European Union 7 Epidemiological research into asthma and allergic disease: establishing a standardised methodology8 1 importance 2 ability to establish the identity of something 3 judgement of the amount, quality or importance of something 4 arguments and facts in support of or against something 5 way of considering something 6 particular ways of considering something 7 understanding based on experience or information 8 set of methods used when studying something Common Mistake Research is uncountable. Don’t say: They carried out some useful researches. To make it plural, say research studies or pieces of research. Research is followed by on or into not of. Say, for example, do research on/into memory loss. 12 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 2.1 Look at the nouns in A and B opposite and note the prepositions that are associated with them. Answer the questions. 1 Which preposition often follows the nouns in both A and B? 2 Which preposition is often used before the nouns in A? 3 Which preposition would fill this gap – The postwar period is paper and will be dealt with in a later study. 2.2 the scope of this Choose the best noun to complete each sentence. 1 2 3 4 5 Environmental topics / issues / principles should be at the top of today’s political agenda. In the exam students had to choose three from a choice of ten essay subjects / theories / topics. There are still people who are reluctant to accept Darwin’s nature / topic / theory of evolution. The professor decided to take moral courage as the issue / theme / model for his inaugural lecture. Economists used a model / principle / topic of human behaviour to help them forecast likely inflation trends. 6 The Peter Issue / Principle / Theme states that members of a hierarchical group will usually end up being promoted to the point at which they become incompetent. 2.3 Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2.4 a b c d e f g h The study revealed a regular The research focuses on one particular The writer makes a powerful The writers take an original Until recently there was little I think you should broaden the To date, there has been little research There are many important scope of your research. awareness of the problem. issues facing the world today. into the environmental effects of nanoparticles. approach to their theme. aspect of modern society. pattern of changes in temperature. case for restructuring parliament. Correct the mistakes in the underlined phrases. 1 Recent researches that were carried out for a report by a government agency showed that local police can play an important role in crime prevention. The report makes 2a strong case of boosting the numbers of community police officers although it warns against increasing police presence on the streets to an alarming degree. 3Its methodological was based on a range of interviews asking members of the public for 4their views in how best to prevent crime. Unfortunately, how to implement this recommendation was 5out of the scope of the study but at least it serves a useful purpose in 6raising awareness to the issue. 2.5 These book titles have been rephrased to sound more academic. Complete them using words from the box. assessment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 features identification nature patterns perspectives principles significance What democracy is really like – The of Democracy Why dreams are important – The of Dreams What do we see in glaciated landscapes? – The of Glaciated Landscapes How to evaluate language skills – The of Language Skills Ways in which human behaviour repeats itself – of Human Behaviour How to recognise different species of bees – The of Bees on Modern Taxation Thinking about taxation from different angle – How to make sure that a business is successful – The of Successful Business Academic Vocabulary in Use 13 3 Key verbs Key verbs for structuring academic assignments A Look at these tasks which students have been given. Discuss some of the problems involved1 in investigating attitudes to diet and health. Write a critical review of an investigation you have read about, or describe an investigation you yourself could conduct2. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of different methods. 7 Starting from rest, an aircraft accelerates to its take-off speed of 60 ms-1 in a distance of 900 metres. Illustrate3 this with a velocity-time graph. Assuming4 constant acceleration, find5 how long the take-off run lasts. Hence calculate6 the acceleration. 8 9 Examine10 how industrial growth has aﬀected any two developing countries. Provide11 statistical evidence where necessary and include a discussion of likely future trends. 1 which are part of/included in 2 organise and do 3 draw something in order to explain something accepting something to be true 5 discover by calculating (see 6) 6 judge the number or amount of something by adding, multiplying, subtracting or dividing numbers 7 shows, makes clear 8 recognise someone or something and say or prove who or what they are 9 questions whether something is true 10 look at or consider carefully and in detail 11 give 4 B More key verbs These extracts from academic books contain more key verbs. In developing methods to explain the signiﬁcance of health status measures, one can classify1 ways of establishing2 quality of life into two main types. The data presented5 in Chapter 3 showed6 that the age of the subjects was not the main factor. The length of time spent on the tasks may account for3 the decrease in motivation which was seen4 in many of the participants. Political theory attempts7 to build bridges between diﬀerent schools of political thought. 1 divide things into groups according to their type 2 discovering or getting proof of 3 explain 4 see is often used in the passive in academic style 5 given 6 proved C 7 tries Noun forms of key verbs In academic style, noun forms of key verbs are often used instead of the verbs. key verb explain explore emphasise describe affect prove verb + noun form of key verb give/provide/offer an explanation (of/for) undertake / carry out an exploration (of) place/put emphasis (on) give/provide a description (of) have an effect on offer/provide proof (that) example The model provides an explanation for the differences between the two sets of data. Kumar undertook an exploration of music genius. The hospital puts a lot of emphasis on training. The book gives a description of modern Europe. Climate change has an effect on sea levels. This research offers proof that bees are on the decline. Common Mistake Notice the difference in spelling between the verb affect and the noun effect. Don’t confuse them. The verb to effect means to make something happen. The invention of the world wide web effected a transformation in global communications. 14 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 3.1 Match the verbs from A in the box on the left with their synonyms in the box on the right. affect attempt calculate challenge demonstrate identify include investigate provide 3.2 compute distinguish give influence involve question show study try Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs from B opposite. 1 As can from Table II, participation figures have been steadily falling since 1970. 2 Different authors have for the President’s actions in different ways. 3 Mendel attempted to devise a system for the many different types of pea plant that he grew. 4 It is often most effective to your data in a chart or table. 5 The data we have collected that there has been a downward trend with regard to job satisfaction over the last 50 years. 6 The aim of the research is to a new software application which will help aviation engineers design more sophisticated aircraft. 7 The archaeologists should be able to use carbon dating techniques to exactly how old the bones are. 8 Charles Darwin to explain the existence of different species in terms of evolution. 3.3 Explain the difference in meaning between each pair of sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 3.4 A A A A A A A A Greig’s article supports Park’s theory. Describe the new tax regulations. Lodhi provides new data. Titova conducted four sets of experiments. Lee established why such changes occur. Okaz assumed that the data were reliable. Illustrate the magnitude of the deceleration. The events effected economic development. Greig’s article challenges Park’s theory. Discuss the new tax regulations. Lodhi considers new data. Titova examined four sets of experiments. Lee investigated why such changes occur. Okaz proved that the data were reliable. Find the magnitude of the deceleration. The events affected economic development. Rewrite the underlined verbs using nouns from the box. description 3.5 B B B B B B B B emphasis explanation exploration Complete the phrases with the correct noun forms of the verbs. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 investigate = conduct, carry out an into/of 2 illustrate = provide an of 3 analyse = provide, carry out an 4 affect = have an on 5 attempt = make an to/at 6 classify = make, provide a of of Erikson’s (2005) book 1explains the changing patterns of educational achievement in children of poorer families. She 2explores the relationship between income, family background and achievement at school and in further education. The book 3describes a study carried out in 12 inner-city neighbourhoods. Erikson’s research 4 emphasises the importance of support within the home. Over to you Using the tasks in A as a model, prepare some assignment topics for students studying any subject that you are familiar with. Academic Vocabulary in Use 15 4 Key adjectives For any key adjective it is useful to note (a) whether it is typically followed by a specific preposition, (b) what nouns it typically collocates with, (c) whether it has any antonyms (adjectives of opposite meaning) and (d) whether it has any related nouns. A Adjectives and prepositions Here are some extracts from academic texts, with adjectives followed by to or of. Some of the responses to the questionnaire were speciﬁc4 to young male respondents. Others were common to all the respondents. Language development is conceived as relative1 to one’s own past performance, or relative to that of others. We need to plan technologies which are appropriate5 to the needs of small farmers. It was typical of the farmers in the study that they had a negative attitude to technology. How can we make science relevant2 to environmental policy? Poor communication between scientists and politicians is characteristic3 of the situation today. 1 true to a particular degree when it is being compared with other things connected with what is happening or being discussed 2 connected with what is happening or being discussed 3 typical of 4 only found in 5 suitable or right for a particular situation or occasion B Some key adjectives and their typical noun collocates There was an apparent1 discrepancy between the two sets of results. We noted a potential2 problem with the experimental design which we had to deal with first. The principal3 cause of the failure was a sudden temperature change. The research used a rigorous4 methodology which had been tested on many occasions. 1 seeming to exist or be true 2 possible when the necessary conditions exist 3 first in order of importance 4 careful to look at or consider every part of something to make certain it is correct C Adjectives and their opposites Each sentence in this text on drug abuse contains a pair of adjectives which are opposites. 1 3 2 4 5 6 1 existing only as an idea, not as a material object 2 existing in a form that can be seen or felt using or based on numbers and statistics 4 using non-number-based methods such as interviews, focus groups, etc. 5 important or noticeable 6 fairly correct but not exact or detailed 3 D Nouns related to adjectives Often in academic style, a noun form of the key adjective is used. 16 I admire her simple style. I admire the simplicity of her style. These statistics are less relevant. These statistics have less relevance. Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 4.1 Use the information in A opposite to correct the mistakes with prepositions in the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4.2 Complete the sentences with adjective and noun collocates from B opposite. 1 2 3 4 4.3 There is an in your figures. Management’s refusal to listen to the workers’ demands was the of the riots. Lamaque devised a for doing research in the field. We spotted a with our procedure and so we changed it in two areas. Replace the underlined adjectives with their opposites. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4.4 A lengthy discussion of the advantages of solar power is not relevant with this essay topic. It is typical to the disease for it to start with an itchy rash. This methodology is not appropriate about the kind of research you are planning. The use of original metaphors is characteristic from the writer’s style. Relative with previous explanations, this theory is quite persuasive. Dark hair and eyes are common for all people from the region. Karlsson checked the figures and agreed with me that they were accurate. The solution to the problem is a simple one. Make rough calculations before you begin to write up your results. The army played a significant role in events. Hernandez prefers to discuss ideas in abstract terms. Volkova’s article reports on a fascinating piece of quantitative research. Complete the sentences with adjectives from the box. complex 1 2 3 4 5 6 4.5 potential specific rough qualitative The plant is difficult to grow and needs very conditions to survive. His tutor was critical of his work for not being enough. In the past the northern tribes looked on the tribes of the south as enemies. We chose a approach to our research and interviewed individuals personally. A set of circumstances led to a civil war in 1897. The estimates that we made turned out to be surprisingly accurate. Complete the table with nouns formed from the adjectives. Use a dictionary if necessary. adjective appropriate significant precise 4.6 rigorous noun adjective complex accurate rigorous noun Rewrite the underlined words using nouns formed from the adjectives. 1 2 3 4 5 6 The professor praised Carla for her rigorous work. The professor praised Carla for the rigour of her work. The slight discrepancy in the two sets of figures is not significant. The complex language used by the poet makes his work difficult to interpret. You must be precise when taking measurements. The later part of the book will be more relevant for next year’s course. The tutor was pleased with how simple and appropriate our research proposal was. Over to you When you come across a key adjective from this unit in your reading, note it down in a phrase so you build up a set of useful phrases using the adjective. Academic Vocabulary in Use 17 5 A Key adverbs Adverbs that compare adverb comparatively/relatively especially/particularly meaning in comparison with something else more than usual specially somewhat (opposite: considerably) primarily for a specific purpose (slightly formal) rather, to some degree mainly mostly/largely almost completely (but not totally so) without anything else being involved directly (opposite: indirectly) B example Our sample was relatively/comparatively small. The process was not especially/particularly difficult. We used specially designed equipment. The second experiment involved a somewhat/considerably larger sample. The article is primarily concerned with the effects of pesticides. The project was largely/mostly successful. The illness is (in)directly linked to poor housing. Adverbs that relate to numbers or time There are approximately 20,000 pairs of birds on the island. [around, about] The figure of 17% is roughly equivalent to the decline in population in the north of the country from 1980 to 2010. [more or less] The phenomenon occurs relatively frequently/infrequently. [often/not often] We eventually obtained the figures we were hoping for, which were precisely the same as those found by Rosenberg (2008). [in the end, after some time; completely and accurately] Ultimately, we plan to repeat the study using exactly the same number of informants. [finally, after other things have been completed. Exactly is similar to precisely, but is more often used to refer to numbers] The team initially failed to establish the cause of the death of the whales. [in the early stages] C Common Mistake Eventually means ‘after some time’. Use finally or lastly when beginning the last point in a discussion. Finally/Lastly, let us consider the impact of tourism on local cultures. Adverbs that relate to how things are stated Hall’s 1968 book essentially1 differs from his earlier work in that it is explicitly2 critical of the government of the time. Generally3 his disapproval of government was only conveyed implicitly4 in his previous works, but here he specifically5 condemns their handling of a number of issues. The 1968 work is more broadly6 in line with other political commentaries of the period. 1 4 5 D referring to its main characteristics; also basically 2 openly 3 usually, also on the whole not directly, suggested or implied rather than stated; opposite of explicitly in particular; opposite of generally 6 in general, without considering minor details Adverbs that restrict or limit merely The medication will merely make the symptoms bearable; it will not cure the disease. [exactly and nothing more] simply Note that simply can have different meanings. To put it simply, the risks of this approach would seem to outweigh its advantages. [plainly] The book presents difficult ideas simply, in a way appropriate for the non-expert. [easily] The exam results were simply dreadful. [without doubt] solely Certain events are solely confined to our planet. [only, involving nothing else] 18 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 5.1 Use the information in A and B opposite to explain the difference in meaning between each pair of sentences. 1 A B 2 A B 3 A B 4 A B 5 A B 5.2 Heinrich’s experiments were mostly criticised on ethical grounds. Heinrich’s experiments were particularly criticised on ethical grounds. The results were somewhat surprising given the circumstances. The results were especially surprising given the circumstances. First-year students are directly affected by the new rules relating to tuition fees. First-year students are particularly affected by the new rules relating to tuition fees. The study was primarily concerned with urban alienation. The study was ultimately concerned with urban alienation. The team eventually obtained unpredicted results. The team frequently obtained unpredicted results. Use the information in C and D opposite to choose the best adverbs to complete the text. What you are saying is 1essentially / merely true. To put it 2basically / simply, there is implicitly / basically no significant difference between the two writers’ theories. However, one of them writes in a 4simply / solely dreadful style while the other has a style that is 5 eventually / generally very impressive. 3 5.3 Replace the underlined adverbs with their opposites from the box. Use each adverb in the box only once. roughly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 5.4 generally exactly indirectly implicitly eventually infrequently precisely There were roughly 350 people living in the village in 1958. Floods happen frequently in this part of the country. We investigated the problem and initially found some small errors in the calculations. The temperature was exactly half a degree lower than the average. Singh (1998) explicitly criticises existing theories of economic growth. Soil erosion is specifically caused by water or wind. The new results were broadly the same as the previous ones. The disease is directly linked to environmental factors. Underline the adverbs in the texts. Then answer the questions. Marine conservationists are currently attempting to save the world’s coral reefs. One plan is to literally glue the damaged reefs back together, using coral artificially raised in underwater laboratories. Reefs are increasingly under attack from human activity as well as from events which occur naturally, such as hurricanes and tsunamis. A recent UN report warns that 30% of the world’s coral reefs have been completely destroyed or are severely damaged. Scientists have recently discovered that ants can remember how many steps they have taken. By carefully shortening or lengthening the legs of ants, the team observed that short-legged ants apparently became lost and could not easily find their way home to the nest. Similarly, ants with longer legs typically travelled 50% further than they needed to and were also temporarily unable to find the nest. It seems ants can definitely count their steps. 1 Which adverb means ‘in the same way’? 2 Find two pairs of adverbs that mean the opposite of each other. 3 Which adverb means ‘a short time ago’? 4 Which adverb means ‘more and more’? 5 Which adverb could be substituted by seriously? 6 Which adverb means ‘for a limited time’? Over to you Find an interesting article in your discipline and underline all the key adverbs. Then check that you understand their meaning. Academic Vocabulary in Use 19 6 Phrasal verbs in academic English Although phrasal verbs occur most frequently in more informal spoken and written English, they are also not uncommon in an academic context. You will hear them used in lectures and will read them in serious journals. Of the phrasal verbs in this unit, only go/look back over and work out are not appropriate for a formal written assignment. A Phrasal verbs and one-word synonyms Phrasal verbs often have one-word synonyms. These sound more formal than their phrasal verb equivalent but both are appropriate when writing or talking about academic subjects. Vary your language by using both. phrasal verb put forward (an idea/view/opinion/ theory/plan) carry out (an experiment / research) make up synonym present be made up of point out consist of observe point up highlight set out (to do something) set out go into aim describe discuss go/look back over go through revise, review * check conduct constitute example In her latest article Kaufmann puts forward a theory which is likely to prove controversial. I intend to carry out a series of experiments. Children under the age of 15 make up nearly half of the country’s population. Parliament is made up of two houses. Grenne points out that the increase in life expectancy has led to some economic problems. The study points up the weaknesses in the current school system. In his article Losanov sets out to prove that … The document sets out the terms of the treaty. In this book Sergeant goes into the causes of the Civil War in some depth. Please go/look back over this term’s notes. Go through your calculations carefully. *Revise is the BrE synonym and review the AmE synonym. (Revise in AmE only means to edit or change something to make it better; review is not used in BrE in the context of preparing for a test as focused on here.) B Carrying out research After completing her ﬁrst degree in zoology Meena went on to1 apply to graduate school. She wanted to work on2 animal behaviour at a well-known institute in New Zealand. She set up3 a series of experiments investigating how bees communicate. She has noticed some curious behaviour patterns but has not yet worked out4 why her bees behave as they do. What she has observed seems to go against5 current theories of bee behaviour. When she has completed all her research she will have to write it all up6. 1 do something after doing something else 2 study, work in the field of 3 prepared, arranged come to a conclusion about 5 not be in agreement with 6 (of an important document) write in a final form 4 Language help Consult a good dictionary when you use phrasal verbs in your writing. For example, a good dictionary tells you when the object can be used before the particle (e.g. write your results up) and when it cannot (e.g. this goes against current theories). 20 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 6.1 Rewrite the underlined words using phrasal verbs from A opposite. 1 We conducted a series of experiments to test out our hypothesis. 2 Before the test you should revise Chapters 7 and 8 of your textbooks. 3 In his article on the American Civil War Kingston discusses the reasons why the situation developed in the way it did. 4 Cole presents some fascinating theories on the development of language in his latest book. 5 The psychologist observed that it was very unusual for a young child to behave in this way. 6 Please check your work carefully before handing it in. 7 Simpson’s book aims to prove that the Chinese reached America long before the Vikings. 8 Women now constitute over half the student population in universities in this country. 6.2 Complete the paragraph with the missing words. As part of my MA I’ve been researching language acquisition. I’ve been working 1 how young children learn their mother tongue. I’ve been carrying 2 experiments to see how much reading to young children affects their language development. I’ve had a great supervisor who has helped me set 3 my experiments and she’s also pointed 4 lots of interesting things in my data that I hadn’t noticed myself. I’m busy writing my work 5 now and I think I should be able to put 6 some useful ideas. It’s been really fascinating and I hope I may be able to go 7 to do a doctorate in the same field although I certainly never set 8 to do a PhD. 6.3 Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6.4 Feudal society was made Carlson was the first to put Her results appear to go The investigation pointed It took him a long time to work The geography book sets a b c d e f forward a convincing theory with regard to this question. up the flaws in the school’s testing methods. out the solution to the algebra problem. out a lot of basic information about all the world’s countries. against what she had found in her earlier studies. up of clearly defined classes of people. Complete the collocations for the phrasal verbs. Choose nouns relevant in an academic context. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 to carry out research 4 to point up 2 to write up 5 to go through 3 to put forward 6 to set up Over to you Look through an article on an academic subject that interests you. Copy out any sentences that you find using phrasal verbs. If there is a one-word synonym for the phrasal verb, make a note of it too. Academic Vocabulary in Use 21 7 Key quantifying expressions Quantifying expressions are important in academic English as it is often necessary to comment on figures or trends. There is more useful language for talking about numbers in Units 33 and 34. A Expressing numbers and amounts We use amount with uncountable nouns: a large amount of money/interest/influence. We use number with plural countable nouns: a small number of articles/books/words. The words number and amount can be used with adjectives such as small, considerable, substantial, significant, huge, enormous, vast, total, surprising, excessive [too much/many], fair [quite a lot] and reasonable [acceptable]. We can also use the phrase a great deal of [a large amount of] with uncountable nouns: a great deal of time/money/effort. B Other ways of expressing quantity The size of our survey was relatively small-scale1. We sent out 2,500 questionnaires in total2. Although a handful3 of people did not respond, the bulk4 (95%) of those sent questionnaires completed them. The survey shows that, for the most part5, the population is becoming more aware of the importance of recycling. All of the people said that they recycled at least some of their rubbish, and none of them felt that recycling was a waste of time. Only one of the respondents said that he recycled less than he used to. 1 4 only involving a small number 2 in all 3 a relatively very small number the majority 5 as regards the greatest number Common Mistake Notice how respondents is in the plural. We use a plural noun after one of: one of our surveys. But we use a singular verb: One of our surveys was reported on local radio. C Comparing numbers and quantities expression exceeding in excess of fewer and fewer / less and less more and more more or less no fewer than 22 example Results exceeding 5 cm were eliminated from the survey. The team has secured research grants in excess of €20m. Fewer and fewer people are staying in the same job throughout their lives. Young people are becoming less and less interested in politics. There is more and more interest in the topic. People are becoming more and more aware of the need to conserve energy. The events happened more or less simultaneously. No fewer than 200 people responded. Academic Vocabulary in Use comment more than more than, used mainly in official or legal writing a steadily declining/decreasing number of, decreasingly a steadily increasing amount of, increasingly (slightly informal) approximately used to suggest the number was unexpectedly large Exercises 7.1 Complete the sentences using the correct form of the word in brackets. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 In a number of cases, there was no reaction at all to the drug. (SURPRISE) The analysis demanded an amount of computer time. (EXCEED) numbers of birds inhabit the lake during the winter. (CONSIDER) The course requires a amount of prior knowledge. (REASON) The survey took a amount of research time and costs were high. (SUBSTANCE) The two dams can hold in of two cubic kilometres of water. (EXCEED) In , 12 areas of the Southern Indian Ocean are now closed to deep-sea fishing. (TOTALITY) 8 Only a of students chose the course, so it was cancelled. (HAND) 9 No than 2,000 new computer viruses are created every year. (FEW) 10 In a number of cases, surface damage was noticed. (SIGNIFY) 7.2 Choose the correct words to complete the paragraph. 1 A vast amount of / A huge number of money was spent on the project. From the outset, a huge amount of / a substantial number of time was wasted waiting for laboratory facilities to be provided by the university. Meanwhile, 3a small number of / a huge number of dedicated employees (just ﬁve) struggled with trying to get the project off the ground. 4 A significant number of / An enormous amount of information had to be gathered and processed before the ﬁrst experiments could be designed. One of the 5result / results of the delays 6has been / have been a decline in the number of applicants for research posts on the project. 2 7.3 Replace the underlined words with their opposites. Make any other necessary changes. There have been a 1small number of studies investigating the impact of email on interpersonal communications. 2None of the studies has been 3large-scale but they suggest some interesting trends in patterns of email use. From one of the studies it seems that 4fewer and fewer people send over 50 emails daily. Moreover, it appears that a 5substantial number of senior citizens use email a lot more frequently than younger people do. 7.4 Read the text and answer the questions. Use a dictionary if necessary. For some years now, scientists have been using a powerful new machine to recreate the conditions that existed at the birth of the universe. The machine generates a massive number of hot, dense, bursts of matter and energy, simulating what happened in the first few microseconds of the beginning of the universe. After no more than ten microseconds, the particles of matter joined together, like water freezing, forming the origin of more or less everything we see in the universe today. 1 2 3 4 5 Which expression explains how long scientists have been using this machine? Which expression tells us how many bursts of matter and energy the machine generates? Which time period does the machine simulate? Which expression states how long it was before the particles of matter joined together? Which expression in the last sentence means approximately? Over to you Find five quantifying expressions from one of your textbooks and use them to write your own sentences. Academic Vocabulary in Use 23 8 A Words with several meanings Set Many words in English have more than one meaning. Set, for example, has a large number of different meanings. Here are some examples which are relevant to academic English. a) (verb) adjust something to a particular level: Set the instruments to zero. b) (verb) establish: I would like to set some ground rules for the course. c) (verb) cause to be in a stated condition: The decision set a number of changes in motion. d) (verb) arrange: We must set a time for our next meeting. e) (verb) become solid: Concrete sets as it cools. f) (noun) group: The condition is associated with a particular set of symptoms. g) (adjective) that must be studied: We have a number of set texts to read for our course. B Academic uses for familiar words These words have a distinct academic meaning as well as more familiar meanings. word accommodate (verb) charge (verb) contract (verb) occur (verb) reference (noun) revolution (noun) structure (noun) C academic meaning change to allow something to fit in example He had to adapt his theory to accommodate new information. refresh the supply of electricity You need to charge the batteries every day. become smaller, shorten As the metal cools, it contracts. exist Some valuable minerals occur in these rocks. details of author or book mentioned in a piece You must provide a list of references at the of writing, to show where information was found end of your assignment. complete turn (e.g. of a wheel) Time is measured by the revolution of the earth around the sun. way in which parts of a system or object are The structure of this element is particularly organised or arranged complex. Words with several different academic uses Many academic words have distinct meanings in different disciplines. Channel, for example, has specific meanings in electronics, linguistics, biology, physics, social sciences and geography [e.g. channels of communication, irrigation channels, government channels, to channel something]. So you will, of course, need a specific dictionary for your own subject. Other words have several distinct meanings that are important in general academic English. The writer takes issue with Kwame’s interpretation. [raises arguments against] In your essay you need to address a number of key issues. [topics] Have you seen the latest issue of the Malaysian Medical Journal? [edition] Jackson raises some important points in his article. [opinions, ideas, information] The writer takes a long time to get to the point. [most significant part] Only 10.2 [ten point two] per cent of the people who received questionnaires responded. Draw a straight line between points A and B on the map. [mark showing the position of something on a plan or diagram] Language help If you come across a word that you know but it does not seem to make sense in that context, check to see whether it has another distinct meaning. If it does, write it down with both (or all) its meanings in your vocabulary notebook. 24 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 8.1 Match the uses of set in the sentences with the meanings a–g in A opposite. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8.2 Before we start you must all set your watches to precisely the same time. Professors will set a date for the submission of assignments relating to their own courses. We expected the mixture to set quickly but it had not hardened by the morning. Before leaving the area, the retreating army set the farm buildings on fire. The engine’s performance has set a new fuel consumption record. During the first semester, music students have to study a number of set pieces. There are a whole set of issues that you should address in your essays. Complete the sentences with the correct form of words from B opposite. 1 When you are doing research, you must keep good records of your as it can be difficult to locate sources later. 2 This medical condition is most likely to in fair-skinned people. 3 Engine speed can be measured in per minute. 4 Hope, the theme of the anthology, is general enough to a variety of approaches. 5 The of society in Ancient Rome has parallels with that of the modern USA. 6 The experiment was designed to discover whether gold or expanded under different conditions. 8.3 Complete each set of phrases with the same word. / underline the key 1 discuss the following 2 to 3 take a precedent / a with / the current 4 to your energies into / a 5 the French science 8.4 / the / make some insightful book / a of exercises of the New Scientist / a controversial of communication / an irrigation of the earth around the sun / a in The text contains some more words that have distinct academic meanings. Use a dictionary to check the meaning of the underlined words. What other meanings can each word have? A simulator showing how outbreaks of infection might spread around the world would be of great assistance in the struggle to contain such diseases. Researchers maintain that to effectively check emerging infectious diseases, they need a significant amount of computing power. A global epidemic simulator would mimic climate simulators which monitor the movement of weather systems. It would record when disease outbreaks occur, where they are heading and, crucially, would allow scientists to test out virtual mitigation measures to assess which might perform best on the ground. 8.5 Jokes are often based on words having several meanings. Explain this joke. A neutron goes into a bar, orders a drink and asks how much it will be. The barman replies: ‘For you, sir, no charge.’ Academic Vocabulary in Use 25 9 Metaphors and idioms A metaphor is an expression which describes something by comparing it to something else with similar characteristics. For example, you might say an academic ‘attacks’ or ‘demolishes’ someone’s theory or argument, just as an army can attack an enemy or workers can demolish a building. If a metaphor is used so often that the original comparison becomes forgotten, then it may be called an idiom. For example, people often say, ‘I’m snowed under with work at the moment.’ Originally this was a metaphor comparing a great deal of work to deep snow (overwhelming everything and making movement difficult). However, this expression has been used so frequently that it no longer usually makes people think of snow. Academic English uses various metaphors and idioms. A Metaphors and idioms referring to light and darkness Data from the comet may shed (new) light on / shine a (new) light on1 how life on earth began. Views on depression have changed in (the) light of2 recent studies of the brain. Novelists, poets and essayists often refer to historical events to illuminate3 their understanding of human behaviour. The book provides an illuminating discussion of how languages change. The report revealed the glaring4 discrepancy between patients’ needs and what the health service can offer them, and highlighted5 the need for a new approach. Researchers remain in the dark6 about what can ensure successful recovery from drug addiction. The book dealt with economic policy in the shadow of7 the Civil War of 1994–1999. 1 provide a clearer explanation for it 2 because of 3 show more clearly something that is difficult to understand 4 something bad that is very obvious (to glare means to shine too brightly) 5 emphasised something important 6 continue in a state of not knowing something 7 in a situation where something bad has happened or is happening B Metaphors and idioms referring to war and conflict Look at these extracts from lectures and note the metaphors and idioms. Critics opposed to D. H. Lawrence attacked his novels on various grounds. But despite the apparent diversity of opinion, Lawrence’s critics were united on what they saw as several serious problems. It’s useful at the present time to look at Japan’s experience in the battle against air pollution, and it’s a battle no nation can afford to lose. In the 19th century, travellers in the region were especially vulnerable to the onslaught of3 tropical diseases. Children have been bombarded with4 increasing amounts of violence in the media. But campaigners have recently scored a victory5 with tighter regulations now going through Parliament. Following a barrage1 of hostile criticism, in his later works we see the artist becoming increasingly detached from the material world, retreating2 more into his own mind than before. 1 2 5 Parents and teachers need to maintain a united front6 on the question of bad conduct at school. action of firing large guns continuously, here meaning a great many criticisms all at once going back to escape from attacks 3 a very powerful attack 4 forced to experience, subjected to won a battle 6 remain united in their opinions and agree on how to act Language help Make notes of metaphors and idioms in your vocabulary notebook and group them together into themes such as ‘war’, ‘light’, ‘temperature and weather’, and so on. 26 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 9.1 Complete the sentences with the correct form of the words in the box. remain glare illuminating shadow highlight shed illuminate shine light 1 The results of the investigation have a light on the pressures of the global economy on farmers in developing countries. 2 Until recently, scientists have in the dark as to the causes of the disease, but a recent breakthrough promises to new light on the problem. 3 Our whole notion of time and space has changed in the of recent developments in physics. 4 Professor Delrio gave a very talk on one of Shakespeare’s later plays . 5 These communities have lived for decades in the of poverty and social deprivation. 6 The team carried out a series of experiments in an attempt to the mysterious processes at work in the organism. 7 The collapse of the bridge in 1998 the need for a more rigorous analysis of the effects of constant traffic movements. 8 The professor found some errors in one student’s calculations. 9.2 Rewrite the underlined phrases using metaphors of conflict from B opposite. 1 Scientists who don’t agree with this theory have recently attacked its basic assumptions. 2 Governments need to remain in complete agreement on the issue of economic migrants. 3 Nowadays, we are forced to see advertisements every time we watch TV or visit our favourite websites. 4 In the face of counter-arguments, several economists have recently moved away from the view that economic processes cannot be altered. 5 The efforts against crime will fail without police and community cooperation. 6 Many traditional rural societies and cultures have been destroyed by the sudden powerful impact of urbanisation. 7 Following a great number all at once of hostile questions from reporters, the Minister suddenly ended the press conference and left the room. 8 Parents recently won a battle by forcing the city council to reduce speed limits near schools. 9.3 Read the text and underline key words and phrases which construct the main metaphor: ‘the human brain is a computer’. Shutting down Alzheimer’s The human brain is a remarkably complex organic computer, taking in a wide variety of sensory experiences, processing and storing this information, and recalling and integrating selected bits at the right moments. The destruction caused by Alzheimer’s disease has been likened to the erasure of a hard drive, beginning with the most recent ﬁles and working backward. As the illness progresses, old as well as new memories gradually disappear until even loved ones are no longer recognized. Unfortunately, the computer analogy breaks down: one cannot simply reboot the human brain and reload the ﬁles and programs. The problem is that Alzheimer’s does not only erase information; it destroys the very hardware of the brain, which is composed of more than 100 billion nerve cells (neurons), with 100 trillion connections among them. Over to you Look at some of the textbooks you use. Can you find any examples of metaphors or idioms there relating to light and darkness or war and conflict? What other types of metaphors or idioms have you noticed in your subject area? Academic Vocabulary in Use 27 10 Nouns and the words they combine with Nouns often combine with specific adjectives, for example medical research, undivided attention or with specific verbs, for example carry out research, pay attention. A Nouns and the adjectives they combine with adjective + noun combinations useful, valuable, personal, constant, close, frequent, intermittent1 contact considerable, heated2, intense, public, animated3 debate crucial, decisive, fundamental element [=factor] conflicting, contrasting, constituent4 elements [=parts] excess, sufficient, nuclear energy common, isolated, natural, recent, universal phenomenon conflicting, (in)conclusive, unforeseen5, preliminary6, encouraging, interim7 results decisive, challenging, conflicting, influential, key, pivotal8 role random, representative sample alternative, efficient, fair, practical, convenient, proper, acceptable way in absolute, broad, relative, general, practical, economic terms 1 5 B from time to time 2 strong, often angry 3 lively not expected 6 first 7 temporary 8 important example I made some useful contacts at the conference. After the lecture there was a heated debate. Timing is a crucial element of the experiment. There are conflicting elements in the artist’s work. Wind turbines create sufficient energy for the town’s needs. Such anti-social behaviour is a recent phenomenon. Our preliminary results were encouraging. Student activists played a pivotal role in the riot. A representative sample of the population was surveyed. It is important to treat your research subjects in a fair way. People are better off in economic terms. 4 that combine to make something Nouns and the verbs they combine with Most of the nouns in the table above are also strongly associated with specific verbs. You can come into contact with someone or something or you can establish, maintain, break off or lose contact. Academics may engage in debate or contribute to a debate. You talk about the debate surrounding an issue. You can combine, differentiate or discern [recognise] the elements of, for example, a chemical compound. You consume [use], conserve, generate [create], save or waste energy. Phenomena emerge or occur and students will try to observe, investigate and then explain those phenomena. Academics collect, collate [organise] and publish their results. Sometimes results are questioned or invalidated [shown to be wrong]. Occasionally they are even falsified! Roles may be defined or strengthened. People or factors can play a role or take on a role. You can take, provide or analyse a sample. You can discover, devise [think up], work out or develop a way to do something. Language help Whenever you notice a noun that seems to be key as far as your own studies are concerned, write it down with the adjectives and verbs it is typically associated with. 28 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 10.1 Look at the adjective and noun combinations in A opposite. Answer the questions. 1 Put these types of contact in order of frequency – frequent, constant, intermittent. 2 If two of the four constituent elements of most language exams are reading and speaking, what are the other two? 3 Which adjective suggests more energy than the other – excess or sufficient energy? 4 Which adjective describes the opposite of a common phenomenon? 5 Would you be pleased if you did some research and got inconclusive results? 6 What adjective other than key can be used with role to give a similar meaning? 7 Can you name three people who play an influential role in a child’s development? 8 Which of these is a representative sample and which is a random sample: a sample chosen by chance, a sample chosen as typical of the population as a whole? 10.2 Complete the sentences with the correct form of verbs from B opposite. 1 I first into contact with Abdul when I started my doctoral research in 2007. 2 The country so much energy that we don’t enough to meet all our needs. 3 The space race an important role in post-war politics. 4 In her research project Diana the phenomenon of extra-sensory perception but she was not able to come to any significant conclusions. 5 Although Hans’s rivals attempted to his results, they met with no success. 6 Green’s poetry successfully elements from a number of different traditions. 10.3 Match the beginnings and endings of the sentences. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10.4 It took the team a long time to devise During the war we had to break There has been a lot of heated debate Ian Hartmann was invited to take on Part of my role was to collate The doctor wanted me to provide Scientists all over the world contributed A new and unexpected phenomenon Using shading helps to differentiate a b c d e f g h i surrounding the issue of global warming. a blood sample for analysis. the role of project leader. to the debate on cloning. off contact with colleagues abroad. seems to be emerging. the key elements in a graph. a way to solve their problem. the results of our experiments. Complete the sentences using words from the box. conflicting heated publish crucial interim random define maintaining natural discern occurs engaging acceptable taking practical 1 2 3 4 5 6 She obtained her results by a sample of the population. Before we go any further we must each of our roles more precisely. We must decide what is an way to proceed, in terms. The group succeeded in contact long after they had all left college. My trip to Africa was the element in my decision to work in conservation. Specialists in the field of bio-engineering have been in debate on this issue for some time. 7 I am told that Smythe is about to some results. The final results won’t be available until next year. 8 Professor Powell was able to some elements in different accounts of the incident. 9 Lightning is a phenomenon which most frequently in the tropics. Academic Vocabulary in Use 29 11 Adjective and noun combinations Noun phrases are an important feature of academic style. This unit focuses on a number of adjective + noun combinations which are particularly frequent in academic English. A Adjectives suggesting importance adjective important central comment significant can convey the same meaning and both adjectives often go with these nouns the opposite, minor, also often goes with these nouns means main or most important particular means special major B frequently combines with … aspect, contribution, difference(s), implications, point, question, reason, element role, changes, problem, factor, issue, concern, difference, theme, contribution, point role, theme, issue, question, concern, feature, focus, element, problem, argument interest, attention, significance, importance, concern Adjectives suggesting amount/extent adjective significant enormous / considerable vast widespread common* comment large in size enormous can mean very large or very important; considerable means large or of noticeable importance (i.e. slightly less strong than enormous) means extremely big means that something happens in many places or among many people means that something is normal or frequent and found on many occasions frequently combines with … increase, effect, reduction, number, proportion amount, expansion, number, range, diversity, difference, variation, extent, degree, impact, power, influence, significance, interest majority, array, amount, range, quantity/ quantities, sums, scale, improvement belief, acceptance, support, opposition, assumption, use experience, practice, use, concern, problem, view *Common can also mean ‘shared’ and as such it combines with knowledge, ground [areas of interest], feature, interest, e.g. There is much common ground between the two writers. C Other useful adjective and noun combinations Specific means relating to one thing and not to things in general. It often combines with context, information, case, type, form, purpose, characteristics, conditions, example. For example, The reaction occurs only under specific conditions. Inevitable is often used with words relating to results or changes such as consequence, outcome, collapse, decline, conflict, effect, developments. [unavoidable] Explicit combines with words relating to how things are presented, e.g. reference, statement, comparison, account, mention. [clear and exact, communicated directly] Relevant combines with words relating to evidence of different types, e.g. data, documents, information, details, factors. [connected with what is being discussed] D Adjectives and prepositional phrases A feature of academic writing is that it often uses the noun form of an adjective in a prepositional phrase beginning with of, instead of just using an adjective. Sagan’s contribution is of particular significance. (= particularly significant) Helvena’s work is of great interest to researchers. (= very interesting) This is a work of considerable importance. (= very important) 30 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 11.1 Choose the best adjective to complete each statement about an academic. 1 Davison did a considerable / an important amount of research into earthquake prediction. 2 Rawlinson drew significant / particular attention to the problem of energy consumption. 3 The central / major argument of Parry’s book is that work can be organised in a variety of ways, some more efficient than others. 4 Werner’s work had a widespread / an enormous impact on the way we design bridges today. 5 An important / A significant proportion of Thomaz’s work was devoted to international law. Three of her five books were on the subject. 6 Prestyn made only a minor / particular contribution to modern psychology, but it was an interesting one, nonetheless. 7 Baklov’s work has some extremely important / central implications for our work today. 8 Mortensen’s work has played a central / vast role in changing attitudes to parenthood. 11.2 Rewrite the underlined words and phrases using adjective and noun combinations. 1 There is opposition among students in many places to the idea of longer semesters. There is widespread opposition among students to the idea of longer semesters. 2 Destruction of the riverbank will cause a decline which is bound to happen in the numbers of small mammals. 3 School standards are a concern which occurs frequently among parents nowadays. 4 Nowhere in the article does the author make mention in a direct, clear and exact way of the 20 cases which were never resolved. 5 There is very little ground which is shared between the two ways of addressing the problem. 6 The paper is too general and lacks examples which relate only to individual things. 7 The work covers an extremely big array of themes from Asian political history. 11.3 Complete the table with the noun forms of the adjectives. Use a dictionary if necessary. adjective significant relevant interesting frequent 11.4 noun adjective important valuable useful broad noun Look at the examples of prepositional phrases in D opposite. Rewrite the underlined words using prepositional phrases. Use adjectives from the box and appropriate nouns. huge high enormous great considerable 1 Johnson’s work is very relevant for any student of medical engineering. Johnson’s work is of great relevance for any student of medical engineering. 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 The research will be very valuable to anyone interested in economic planning. It was an event which was terribly important in the history of Latin American politics. Partich’s book is an extremely broad work. Sorlan’s book was a very significant work in the development of political theory. This software will be quite useful in the analysis of large amounts of numerical data. The method outlined is very interesting to anyone investigating sleeplessness. ‘You know’ is an expression which is very frequent in informal spoken English. DNA evidence is centrally important. Academic Vocabulary in Use 31 12 A Verbs and the words they combine with How verbs combine with other words When you learn verbs in an academic context, it is useful to note a number of things about them. Do they combine with any nouns, and does the noun go before or after the verb, for example, the research / theory is based on, to pose a problem / question / threat? Do they combine with any adverbs, for example, mainly / partly / loosely based on? Are they followed by any prepositions, for example, to base something on something else? Are they often used in the passive, for example, be based on, be associated with? verb base (on) nouns research, theory, story, hypothesis associate (with) word, idea, theory, term discuss establish B adverbs mainly, partly loosely generally, commonly, invariably idea, problem, issue, at length, briefly, thoroughly question, topic, theme relationship, firmly, clearly, connection conclusively examine facts, evidence, effects, aspects briefly, critically, thoroughly demonstrate existence, need, effects, importance clearly, convincingly identify (with) (often used in passive) causes, factors, issues, properties, needs, approach, origin correctly, clearly, closely examples The story was loosely based on a true event which occurred in 1892. The theory is mainly based on the writer’s initial study. A decrease in consumer spending is generally associated with fears of instability. The word is commonly associated with youth culture. Wilson and Crick (1965) discuss the problem at length. Sim’s article discusses the issue thoroughly. Geologists have been unable to firmly establish a connection between the two types of fossils. Lopez conclusively establishes a relationship between the two phenomena. We shall now briefly examine the evidence for the existence of dark matter. Our aim is to thoroughly examine the effects of stress. The study clearly demonstrates the importance of support for dementia sufferers. Harvey’s work convincingly demonstrates the need for a new approach to the problem. This approach is closely identified with the work of H. Crowley during the 1950s. The article clearly identifies the factors influencing the decision to go to war. More verbs in combination with nouns, adverbs and prepositions pose: This inevitably poses a question concerning the stability of society. Parks poses a challenge to Kahn’s theory. suggest: The most recent results strongly suggest a different interpretation of the situation. The article suggests a new approach to the problem. list: Here I simply list the main hypotheses / causes / features / characteristics; they will be examined in detail below. refer: The book refers frequently / specifically / in passing to the 1956 economic crisis. observe: This is due to the changes / trends / differences we observed earlier. Common Mistake Remember we say based on NOT based in. We say discuss a problem / an issue NOT discuss about a problem 32 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 12.1 Choose the most appropriate adverb for each underlined verb, and add it to the sentence in the correct place. 1 Paulson’s research demonstrated the need for a new approach to the study of stress. (invariably convincingly closely) 2 As was observed, there is a strong correlation between house prices and inflation. (closely critically earlier) 3 In the study of languages, ‘tense’ refers to the coding of time in form of the verb. (specifically strongly briefly) 4 Classical liberal economics is identified with the theories of Milton Friedman. (thoroughly closely conclusively) 5 Chapter 1 discusses the main issues, but they are dealt with in detail in Chapter 2. (closely simply briefly) 6 To date, no research exists that establishes a connection between behaviour, personality traits, and leadership traits. (firmly thoroughly critically) 7 SENTA is a computer programming language based on Logo. (strongly slightly loosely) 8 Social research techniques were applied to examine the effects of the policy on the poor. (strongly mainly critically) 12.2 Complete the sentences with suitable nouns. There may be more than one possible answer. 1 Here we list again the main of the present study and show which have been proven and which have been rejected. 2 The graph enables us to observe recent broad in mortality rates. 3 The researchers concluded that it is still difficult to identify the of the timerelated changes in human beings that we call ageing. 4 A seminar was held to discuss the of children’s rights in the light of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. 5 Wu demonstrated the for a comprehensive plan in preparation for a pandemic. 12.3 Cross out the one noun which does not fit in each sentence. Use a dictionary if necessary. 1 These figures lead me to suggest an alternative theory / solution / importance / interpretation. 2 It is clear that these developments pose a new question / challenge / threat / factor. 3 Before we reach any conclusion, it is important to examine the matters / evidence / facts / issues. 12.4 The following text contains eight more useful verb + adverb combinations. Read the text and underline them. T he world is facing a looming water crisis. Disputes over allocation have steadily increased in the last decade, and demand has grown rapidly. Water is likely to generate the same degree of controversy in the 21st century as oil did in the 20th. If we take no action now, new conﬂicts are likely to occur periodically around the world. At the moment, 12.5 instead of seeking solutions which directly address multiple needs, countries focus a little too narrowly on local issues and typically opt for expensive and inferior solutions. What is needed are decisions which can be quickly implemented and a debate which will seriously consider more than the short-term needs of individual states. Complete the sentences using verb + adverb combinations from 12.4. 1 2 3 4 5 Various measures were introduced last year to the issue of identity theft. The justice system needs to the impact of a prison sentence on offenders. The number of university applications has been over the last 50 years. The article on one aspect of the problem rather than taking a broad view. The suggested measures should be to avoid further problems. Academic Vocabulary in Use 33 13 Prepositional phrases Notice the prepositional phrases in bold in the texts below. A A book review The Guide to the Semi-Colon in English was written by Keith Pedant in conjunction with1 a team of researchers at Boredham University. In comparison with previous works on the semi-colon, this is a very substantial volume. In addition to the main text there are a number of appendices. These are to some extent2 the most useful parts of the book as, in line with3 modern linguistic practice, they provide a wealth of real data. In spite of its potentially dry topic, the book contains many fascinating examples, in the sections dealing with the history of the semi-colon in particular. With the exception of4 the final chapter, this book may be of some interest to the general reader as well as the specialist but on the whole5 is mainly for those who have a professional interest in punctuation marks. If it fails in any respect6, it is in relation to7 recent changes in the punctuation of e-communication, in terms of8 the conventions of text-messaging, tweets and similar media. 1 working together with 2 notice also to a greater / lesser / certain extent 3 following; also in accordance with 4 not including 5 generally 6 or in any way 7 in connection with 8 describes which particular area of a subject is being discussed B A talk to a genealogy club Chairperson: Now, at this stage1 in the proceedings it’s my pleasure to introduce our speaker tonight, Dr Anna Klein, the country’s leading family history specialist. Anna, I’d like to welcome you on behalf of 2 all our members. Ladies and gentlemen, in view of 3 the fact that we only have 45 minutes, I would ask you to keep any questions till the end of Dr Klein’s talk. Thank you. Anna Klein: Thank you. Er … I should confess from the outset4 that my own interest in genealogy came about as a result of discovering some old letters in the attic at home. You know, I found them purely by chance5. They’d been written by some relatives who’d emigrated to Canada a hundred years or so before … and for me, as a ten-year-old then, they were by far6 the most exciting things I’d ever read. They were, for the most part7, extremely well-written and, from then on8, I was determined to learn as much as I could about my family. In other words9, I had started out on my genealogical journey. In some ways I was very lucky. I was able, so to speak10, to get to know my family on the basis of the old letters and this enabled me to track down some relations living in Montreal. They, in turn, provided some contacts with Australian cousins and so it continued. In the process11, I’ve learnt a great deal, not only about my own family, but also as regards how to approach tracing one’s family. In most respects12 it’s been a thoroughly enjoyable adventure though there have been some difficult moments … 1 now, also at this point 2 representing 3 because of 4 from the beginning 5 accidentally very much 7 generally 8 since that moment 9 to express something differently 10 what I am saying is not to be understood exactly as stated 11 while doing this 12 considering most aspects of the experience 6 Common Mistake On the one hand and on the other hand are used to compare and contrast two different ways of looking at an issue. Do not confuse on the other hand with on the contrary. On the contrary means that the previous statement is not true or not correct. Stoneworkers use a variety of names for types of stone. Geologists, on the other hand, use names that are too technical or specialised for ordinary use. (Not: Geologists, on the contrary, use names …) 34 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 13.1 1 Look at the press announcements and complete the prepositional phrases with the missing words. 2 Professor Soltero said that, line government guidelines, the team would consult the local the best solution to the siting community as of the drilling platform. She promised that the community outset and that her team, would be fully involved turn, would inform the public at every stage. 3 Dr Leiman said that while the hand the government wanted to the hand encourage research, they were reducing funding for universities; in words, research would inevitably suffer. 5 the exception one study in 1986, no major research has been carried out into the problem, Dr Peters stated. The greatest need at the moment was a concerted by effort to kick-start a research programme. 7 4 6 addition a new building on the campus, the team will receive a very generous grant to conduct their to the university’s plan, this represents research. In an exciting and much-awaited development. particular, the new facility would attract outside investment. Professor Karpal said that, the basis her studies so far, she was optimistic that a cure for the disease extent, there was already cause would be found. To , hopes had to rest for optimism, but, for the most on the possibility of a breakthrough in the near future. whole, social Lauren Charles said that, conditions had improved since the report, especially terms jobs and housing for the poorer sectors. If economic and social policy had failed respect, it was in child care for the less well-off. 13.2 A spokesperson for the company said that, stage, there is no proof of the sideof the effects of the drug, but in public concern, the company was withdrawing spite this necessary it. measure, she was sure that the drug would soon return to the market. 8 The professor said that he was delighted to accept the award behalf the whole university. , he had been the lucky He said that, in some speak, in that he had been able to work one, with such a wonderful team. in Choose the correct prepositional phrases to complete the paragraph. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Over to you Use a dictionary or search websites related to your studies to find an example sentence using each of these phrases: on the one hand, on the other hand, on behalf of, as a result of, with the exception of, except. Write them out and then add one more sentence for each one relating to your own studies. Academic Vocabulary in Use 35 14 A Verbs and prepositions Verbs with on – sentences from academic articles Chapter 1 of Huang’s book focuses on violent human behaviour. Sura’s article draws on data gathered over a period of ten years. [uses in support of his/her case] The introduction to the book comments briefly on a case study carried out in Brazil. In this section I concentrate on the economic aspects of immigration. The book is based on a number of studies carried out during the 1990s. [often used in passive] The method used by Scanlon relies on / rests on* two basic principles. [*(formal) is based on] B Verbs with to – teachers talk to students We assigned1 the tasks randomly to the experimental group and the control group to see how the subjects would react to the different problems. Malaria poses a major health risk to people who are exposed to infection where malaria is common. Last year 13% of deaths among children were attributed to2 malaria in one area of Zaire. OK, let’s turn to the more difficult cases that I mentioned earlier. How should a doctor respond to a patient who doesn’t consent to treatment when it seems to be essential? When you’re planning a questionnaire, you should always attend to3 design issues such as the number of questions and how clear they are. We can’t really say that an increase in inflation of two per cent amounts to4 an economic crisis, and I refer here to some recent stories in the media which are highly exaggerated and which can be traced to5 a deep misunderstanding of how inflation operates. 1 give a particular job or piece of work to someone 2 say or think that something is the result of something (often used in passive) 3 deal with something, give your attention to something 4 be the same as something, or have the same effect as something 5 discover the origin of something by examining how it has developed (often used in passive) C Other verb + preposition combinations verbs + prepositions associate, provide, couple, equip + with examples We try to equip our laboratories with the latest technology. Heart disease is often associated with unhealthy lifestyles. Note: In the active voice, as in the first example, this group of verbs follows the pattern verb + object + preposition + complement. Note also that these verbs are often used in the passive, as in the second example. depart, benefit, In this book, Herne departs from his earlier theory. [takes a different view] emerge, exclude + from Some of the data were excluded from the final analysis. write, speak, convince, Abuka writes / speaks of the early years of industrial development. [both are rather dispose + of formal] We must convince people of the need for water conservation. account, search, call, Lung cancer accounted for 20% of deaths in men. [formed a total of] argue + for Hopper (1987) argues for a new approach to English grammar. [opposite: argue against] Common Mistake The verbs emphasise and stress are used without any preposition (NOT on). The study emphasises / stresses the need for more controlled experiments to back up the conclusions. Divide is followed by into (NOT divide in). The subjects were divided into three groups. 36 Academic Vocabulary in Use Exercises 14.1 Choose the correct prepositions. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 14.2 The article focuses in / on economic changes. The origins of the festival have been traced on / to a medieval celebration. The professor commented in / on the students’ essays in some detail. It took the politicians some time to convince others in / of the need for change. The theory is based in / on a series of hypotheses. Jackson departed from / off his usual style in his final novel. The research relies in / on some unusual experiments. You must concentrate in / on your studies if you are to do well in your exams. The author has drawn in / on some interesting primary sources. Clark never spoke of / at his life during the 1930s. Complete the phrases with the correct prepositions. a discrepancy in the figures account argue equality assign something group A be associated technological change attribute a quotation someone benefit government reforms call an improvement in working conditions 8 consent medical treatment 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 14.3 Complete the sentences with the correct form of verb + preposition combinations from 14.2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7