Main Advanced Reading Power: Extensive Reading, Vocabulary Building, Comprehension Skills, Reading...
You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me
Most frequently terms
this web help me indeed, thanks
16 April 2018 (08:28)
This site helps a lot
05 March 2020 (03:15)
It's one of the best website I have ever come across
29 April 2020 (16:14)
This is really the best on-line library I have ever seen. I must share it with people around me.
24 May 2020 (19:55)
thank you very much
27 May 2020 (14:53)
thank you very much That help me to knowlwdge
05 July 2020 (17:17)
This site is perfect for me. Thank you
05 July 2020 (21:14)
Really outstanding website
20 July 2020 (20:57)
I love this site. Give reader a wide range of free books, especially people who can't afford to purchase a book.
08 September 2020 (20:54)
I love it. A lot of excellent books!
13 September 2020 (18:06)
THANK YOU I grabbed an alternative book through this website which I couldn't find otherwise. No random joe a bot wouldn't be able to lie this way. I sincerely made this account to thank the devs, kudos team ;)
17 September 2020 (00:20)
This is one of the best website i ever come across in my life. Now i can read a lot of books from the great authors.
22 September 2020 (03:10)
Good book I learnt very useful things by this book must read
01 October 2020 (11:20)
It's truly fruitful. It fetched whatever I needed. I feel indebted to a friend who gave me this link and made my life easier.
21 October 2020 (06:30)
when I browse books on Zlib, I feel I am in heaven
when I browse books on Zlib, I feel I am in heaven
06 December 2020 (19:32)
it's a #GameChanger website for #Bibliophile ....
28 December 2020 (20:46)
honestly, the best online library i have ever find
01 February 2021 (03:28)
Adrianus T. Santoso
Thank you so much, I have downloaded a lot of books.
Thank you, God bless you
Thank you, God bless you
19 February 2021 (14:12)
Blessed be thy soul, who develops and maintains this beautiful website
09 March 2021 (09:39)
Thanks a lot for all the material you share.
06 April 2021 (01:26)
Thankyou for providing the resources you shared. Much appreciated
29 May 2021 (15:09)
30 May 2021 (21:56)
Superb website indeed.
Thank you very much.
Thank you very much.
03 July 2021 (02:14)
Very much appreciated. Thank you...
13 July 2021 (16:24)
love this website so much, it's so easy to navigate and so useful
18 July 2021 (23:45)
I can not thank you enough. Thank you for provided such a wonderful library for can not afford to get or purchase books. I must thank to my colleague who showed me this site, Idris Okey Ayomo.
29 July 2021 (20:09)
I HAVE BEEN SURFING THE WEBSITE FOR N YEARS!
17 September 2021 (16:31)
I cant thank you enough guys! This website is giving a much needed academic assistance--in providing inaccessible books for students living in third-world country, like I do. Please keep this, i could say, "scared" work. It is an overstatement indeed.
13 November 2021 (15:18)
Amazing site. Thank you for making the site so powerful that helps many people who love studying
25 December 2021 (05:19)
honestly, I am honored
11 January 2022 (05:13)
Acknowledgments The authors thank Laura Le Dréan , executive editor, whose feedback was invaluable as we developed Advanced Reading Power, and Gosia Jaros-White, associate development editor, who helped us clarify our ideas and stay on schedule. We gratefully acknowledge the gentle pressure from the many teachers who have wanted us to write an advanced level book for the Reading Power series. We have made every effort to respond to their concerns. We would also like to thank friends and colleagues, including Anita Belt and Jane Stevenson, for their helpful input and encouragement. We acknowledge the influence of Tom Cobb, Averil Coxhead, and I. S. Paul Nation, whose work was essential in planning the new vocabulary development units. Finally, we wish to thank Richard M. Ravin for his outstanding work in researching and drafting the reading passages in Part 4. The publisher would like to extend special thanks to the following individuals who reviewed Advanced Reading Power and whose comments were instrumental in developing the book. Jennifer Altman, University of Washington English Language Program, Seattle, WA; Mary Hill, North Shore Community College, Danvers, MA; Helen Kallenbach, Sonoma State American Language Institute, Rohnert Park, CA; Alessandro Massaro, Bunker Hill Community College, Boston, MA; Susan Reynolds, Seminole Community College, Oviedo, FL; Ishida Saori, University of Hawaii at Manoa, NICE Program Outreach College, Honolulu, HI Advanced Reading Power: Extensive Reading, Vocabulary Building, Comprehension Skills, Reading Faster Copyright © 2007 by Pearson Education, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. Pearson Education, 10 Bank Street, White Plains, NY 10606 Staff credits: The people who made up the Advanced Reading Power team, representing editorial, production, desig; n, and manufacturing, are Christine Edmonds, Ann France, Gosia Jaros-White, Laura Le Dréan, Edith Pullman, Jennifer Stem, and Paula Van Ells. Text composition: Rainbow Graphics Text font: 10/14 Stone Serif Text, Illustration, and Photo credits: See page 311 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Mikulecky, Beatrice S. Advanced reading power : extensive reading, vocabulary building, comprehension skills, reading faster / Beatrice S. Mikulecky, Linda Jeffries. p. cm. ISBN 0-13-199027-6 (pbk.) 1. Reading (Higher education) 2. College reading improvement programs. 3. Vocabulary—Study and teaching. 4. Reading comprehension. I. Jeffries, Linda. II. Title. LB2395.3.M53 2007 428.4'3—dc22 2006032213 LONGMAN ON THE WEB ISBN - 13: 978-0-13-199027-2 ISBN - 10: 0-13-199027-6 Printed in the United States of America 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10-VHG-11 10 09 08 Longman.com offers online resources for teachers and students. Access our Companion Websites, our online catalog, and our local offices around the world. Visit us at Iongman.com . Contents Introduction Part 1: Extensive Reading Unit 1: Choosing a Book for Extensive Reading Unit 2: Reading and Discussing Nonfiction 12 Unit 3: Reading and Discussing Fiction 14 Unit 4: Responding to and Reporting on Your Extensive Reading Books Part 2: Vocabulary Building 22 25 Unit 1: Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary 26 Unit 2: Learning New Words from Your Reading 31 Unit 3: Inferring Meaning from Context 36 Unit 4: Word Parts Unit 5: Collocations 47 62 Part 3: Comprehension Skills 73 Unit 1: Previewing Unit 2: Making Inferences 75 Unit 3: Understanding Paragraphs 88 Unit 4: Patterns of Organization 105 134 Unit 5: Reading Longer Passages Effectively 155 Unit 6: Skimming 170 183 Unit 7: Study Reading Unit 8: Summarizing Unit 9: Critical Reading Part 4: Reading Faster 200 216 239 Unit 1: Learning to Read Faster 240 Unit 2: New Technology and Its Impact Around the World Unit 3: People Who Have Made a Difference 255 271 Unit 4: Inventions That Are Changing Our Lives 287 Appendix 1: List of 2,000 Most Frequent Words Appendix 2: Academic Word List Appendix 3: Record of Books Read 303 308 310 Contents Introduction To the Teacher Advanced Reading Power is unlike most other reading textbooks. First, the focus is different. This book directs students' attention to their own reading processes, while most other books focus primarily on the content. Second, Advanced Reading Power is organized in a different way. It contains four separate sections that correspond to four important aspects of proficient reading, and therefore it is like four books in one. Teachers should assign work on all four parts of the book concurrently. The four parts of Advanced Reading Power are: • Part 1: Extensive Reading • Part 2: Vocabulary Building • Part 3: Comprehension Skills • Part 4: Reading Faster Advanced Reading Power was designed to meet the needs of students who are enrolled in pre-college programs, college bridge programs, or advanced reading classes at the postsecondary level. Consequently, emphasis has been placed on the development of skills necessary for academic success, including building academic vocabulary. The purpose of Advanced Reading Power is to develop students' awareness of their own reading and thinking processes so that they can be successful in reading college-level texts. To accomplish this, the book addresses the various reading skills in a direct manner, calling students' attention to how they think as they read. Many students have a conceptualization of reading as translating, and that can interfere with their ability to read well in English. In Advanced Reading Power, students acquire an accurate understanding of what it means to read in English and gain confidence in their ability to deal with college-level reading assignments. In order to allow students to focus on the process of reading, the lexical and syntactic content of some exercises has been controlled. In other exercises, however, students practice working with authentic texts of different types, including excerpts from college textbooks. Student awareness of reading and thinking processes is further encouraged in many parts of the book by exercises that require them to work in pairs or small groups. In discussions with others, students formulate and articulate their ideas more precisely and thus acquire new ways of talking and thinking about a text. When students are asked to write sentences or paragraphs, they are also asked to exchange their work with others and discuss it so they can experience the connections between reading and writing. The success of a reading class depends to a large extent on the teacher. You can enhance your students' learning while working with Advanced Reading Power by providing the following: • an anxiety-free environment in which students feel comfortable taking risks and trying new ways of reading. Introduction V • enough practice so the students can master new strategies. • friendly pressure in the form of persuasion and timing. • positive examples of how to approach a text. • a model for the kind of thinking that good reading requires. • an inspiring example of an enthusiastic reader. Note: A rationale for the approach taken in Advanced Reading Power, specific suggestions for using it in the classroom, and a Sample Syllabus can be found in the Answer Key booklet. For a more complete explanation of the theory and methodology see A Short Course in Teaching Reading Skills by Beatrice S. Mikulecky (Addison-Wesley, 1990). To the Student Using Advanced Reading Power Since this book is different from other reading textbooks, it must be used in a different way. Advanced Reading Power is divided into four parts. Instead of working on one part at a time, as you would in most books, you should work regularly on all four parts of the book. Part 1: Extensive Reading. The more you read, the better you read. In Part 1, you will have an opportunity to develop the habit of reading extensively—that is, reading many books that you choose for yourself. This will help improve your reading fluency, increase your comprehension and expand your vocabulary. Part 2: Vocabulary Building. Research has shown that a strong vocabulary is an essential aspect of reading ability. In this part, you will develop strategies for expanding your knowledge of vocabulary, particularly words used often in academic texts. Part 3: Comprehension Skills. Reading is a complex activity that involves a wide variety of skills. Your ability to understand and remember what you read depends in large part on your ability to apply these skills to your reading. Each unit in Part 3 focuses on an essential reading skill for you to explore and practice. In the Focus on Vocabulary section at the end of each skills unit, you will also have the opportunity to learn some of the academic words from the unit. Part 4: Reading Faster. Reading rate (speed) is a crucial factor in academic performance, but one that is often overlooked. Reading faster allows you to save time on reading assignments. It also makes reading more enjoyable so you are likely to read more, and it leads to better comprehension. In this part of the book, you will work on improving your reading rate. Reading questionnaires What is your experience as a reader? What do you know about reading? vi Introduction Questionnaire 1 Reading in your native language ( For each statement, write T (true) or F (false). 1. It is always necessary to read every word of a passage. 2. It is a good idea to say the words aloud when you read. 3. Reading more slowly improves comprehension. 4. Knowing every word is necessary for comprehension. 5. As you read, you should always look up the meaning of words you do not know. 6. To read well, you need to know the pronunciation of every word. 7. Learning vocabulary is the only way to improve reading ability. 8. Learning grammar is the only way to improve reading ability. 9. You can read all kinds of texts (books, newspapers, etc.) the same way. 10. Reading in different languages requires some different reading methods. Questionnaire 2 Reading in English For each statement, write T (true) or F (false). is always necessary to read every word of a passage 2. It is a good idea to say the words aloud when you read. 3. Reading more slowly improves comprehension. 1. It 4. 5. 6. 7. Knowing every word is necessary for comprehension. As you read, you should always look up the meaning of words you do not know. To read well, you need to know the pronunciation of every word. Learning vocabulary is the only way to improve reading ability. 8. Learning grammar is the only way to improve reading ability. 9. You can read all kinds of texts (books, newspapers, etc.) the same way. 10. Reading in different languages requires some different reading methods. Were your answers the same in both questionnaires? Compare your answers with those of another student. Do you agree? You should have written F for every question in both questionnaires! If you marked some answers T, then you may need to learn more about reading. In Advanced Reading Power, you will discover more about the reading process and will have opportunities to re-evaluate your ideas about reading. Int roductio n VII PART Extensive Reading Introduction to Extensive Reading Questionnaire Answer the questions below on your own. Then form a group of two to four students and compare your answers. 1. Looking back at your childhood, what do you remember as your first reading experiences? 2. What kinds of reading material did your parents have in the house when you were young? 3. Do you remember having books or other materials read to you as a child? If so, what did you like best? 4. When you were able to read on your own, what did you enjoy reading? 5. Did your parents or other members of the family like to read? If so, what did they read? 6. What kind of reading is important in your life today? For example, do you read a lot for school or for your job? 7. About how many hours a week do you usually read materials of your own choice (magazines, newspapers, novels, nonfiction)? 8. Do you have a favorite writer in your first language? A favorite book? 9. What books have you read in English? 10. If you could easily read anything in English, what would you like to read? Would you like to . . . . . read English faster with good comprehension? . . . increase your vocabulary in English? . . . improve your grammar in English? . . . improve your writing skills in English? . . . succeed in academic courses in English? . . . gain broad knowledge of the world? If you answered yes to these questions, then extensive reading is for you. 2 Extensive Reading What is extensive reading? • reading a lot — at least one book every two or three weeks; • choosing a book that is interesting to you; • no tests on comprehension or vocabulary; • reading at your own pace. You will benefit most from extensive reading if you follow these three essential rules: Rule 1: Enjoy! Rule 2: Enjoy! Rule 3: Enjoy! (Source: "Rules" adapted from J. Bamford and R. Day, Extensive Reading Activities for Teaching Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004, p. 5) Because extensive reading is enjoyable, you will read faster and more, which makes it more enjoyable, so you will read even faster and more. This is the cycle of positive reinforcement that leads to the positive effects on comprehension and general language skills listed on page 2. What the experts say about extensive reading "Extensive reading is the most efficient way to help students change old habits and become confident second language readers." Prof. Mary Lee Field, Wayne State University, Michigan ". . . reading for pleasure [extensive reading] is the major source of our reading competence, our vocabulary and our ability to handle complex grammatical constructions." Prof. Stephen Krashen, University of Southern California "Extensive reading may play a role in developing the capacity for critical thinking so important for success in higher education." Prof. Richard R. Day, University of Hawaii and Prof. Julian Bamford, Bunkyo University, Japan "It is clear from these studies that extensive reading can be a major factor in success in learning another language." Prof. I. S. P. Nation, Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand Extensive Reading 3 Choosing a Book for Extensive Reading UNIT Where to Find a Book Ask your teacher, classmates, or friends for suggestions, or look on best-seller lists or the Internet (http://www.NYTimes.com or http://www.Amazon.com , for example) for titles that might interest you. Then go to a bookstore or library to see what is available. How to Choose a Book 1. Choose a book that interests you. Your teacher and classmates may have good suggestions, but choose the book that is best for you, not for them. 2. Choose a full-length book, not a collection of articles or stories. Reading a whole book by a single author allows you to become comfortable with the writer's style and vocabulary. 3. Avoid a book whose story you are already familiar with because you have read it in another language or have seen the movie made from it. Knowing what will happen may make it less interesting for you. 4. Evaluate the book. To find out about the author and the genre (type of book), read the front and back covers. Read the first few pages, to find out about the style and subject. 5. Check the level of difficulty. If a book is too easy, it may be boring; if it is too difficult, you may become discouraged and stop reading. To find out how difficult the book is for you, count the number of unknown key words on a typical page. (A key word is a word you must know in order to follow the general meaning.) Five unknown key words on one page means the book is difficult for you. No unknown key words means the book is easy. Hints for success in extensive reading • Set a goal for yourself. Decide how many books you would like to read during the semester. • Make reading a part of your daily routine. Set a time and place for reading. Read for at least thirty minutes at a time so that you can become involved in your book. • Carry your book wherever you go and read it whenever you have time. • Keep a journal. Write about your reactions to the book or any thoughts that are stimulated by your reading. • When you finish a book, complete a Book Response Form, following the form on page 24. Then make an appointment with your teacher for a book conference to share your thoughts and reactions to it. 4 Extensive Reading List of Recommended Titles The books on this list have been read and enjoyed by students around the world, but you may choose a title that is not on the list. What matters most is that you find a book at an appropriate level that interests you. (*) This author has written other books that might be of interest. (**) This book may be easier to read. Note: The number of pages is included to give you an idea of the approximate length. Other editions may be of slightly different length. Book List Fiction Things Fall Apart. Achebe, Chinua. A classic African novel about how a Nigerian faces conflict within his society, as well as the effects of British colonialism. (215 pages) Little Women. Alcott, Louisa May.* The classic novel of the joys and sorrows of the four March sisters and their mother in New England in the 1800s. (561 pages) If Street Could Talk.** Baldwin, James. A talented New York musician is falsely accused of a crime and put in prison. His girlfriend is determined to free him. (213 pages) Sacajawea. Bruchac, Joseph. A novel about a young Native American woman in the early nineteenth century who helped two explorers find a safe route across North America to the Pacific Ocean. (199 pages) My Antonia.** Cather, Willa.* A young woman who is the daughter of an immigrant from Bohemia faces loneliness and other challenges as an early settler in the American West. (175 pages) Disgrace. Coetzee, J. M.* A brilliant tale of loneliness and violence in post-apartheid South Africa. (220 pages) The Chocolate War. Cormier, Robert.* A high school student fights against a secret society of other students and becomes a hero in the school. (191 pages) Bridget Jones's Diary. Fielding, Helen.* A funny and realistic novel (in the form of a diary) of the life of a single young woman today in search of self-improvement. (267 pages) Tender Is the Night. Fitzgerald, F. Scott.* Set in the 1920s on the French Riviera, this is the story of a psychiatrist and his wealthy wife, who is also his patient. (315 pages) Johnny Tremaine.** Forbes, Esther. The American Revolution and life in Boston in the 1770s, as seen through the experiences of a youth. (269 pages) A Lesson Before Dying. Gaines, Ernest J. The moving story of an unusual friendship between a young teacher and a man in prison for murder, waiting to be executed. (256 pages) Choosing a Book for Extensive Reading Father Melancholy's Daughter. Godwin, Gail. A young woman's search for an understanding of the mother who left her when she was six years old and died soon after. (404 pages) Snow Falling on Cedars. Guterson, David. During World War II, the Japanese-American community on an island near Seattle is sent to a prison camp in Montana, and after the war, a young Japanese-American is accused of murder. (460 pages) The Friends.** Guy, Rosa.* A family moves to the United States from the West Indies and finds love and friendship. (185 pages) For Whom the Bell Tolls. Hemingway, Ernest.* This famous romantic novel is set during the Spanish Civil War, when a young American volunteer falls in love with a Spanish girl. (471 pages) Jazz Country. Hentoff, Nat.* A white youth in New York plays his trumpet in a jazz club in Harlem. (146 pages) About a Boy. Hornby, Nick. The hilarious account of a friendship between an adolescent and a thirty-six-year-old man. Through their relationship, they both grow up and learn to cope with their lives. (307 pages) The Kite Runner. Hosseini, Khalid. Narrated by a young Afghani, this novel gives a vivid picture of contemporary Afghanistan and the conflict and hardships endured by the Afghan people. (371 pages) A Pale View of Hills. Ishiguro, Kazuo. A novel that reflects the author's own experience as a Japanese person in England. The story shifts from Nagasaki and the atomic bomb during World War II to England twenty years later. (183 pages) The Metamorphosis. Kafka, Franz. The story of a young man who wakes up one morning to discover that he has turned into a beetle-like insect. (55 pages) Flowers for Algernon. Keyes, Daniel. A sad tale of a mentally challenged man who is given an experimental drug. For a short time, he becomes normal. (216 pages) Annie John.** Kincaid, Jamaica.* A young girl growing up on the Caribbean island of Antigua tries to escape from her close emotional ties to her mother. (148 pages) The Bean Trees. Kingsolver, Barbara.* Driving west to start a new life, Taylor stops for gas. A woman gives her a little girl. The touching story of how they grow to love each other. (323 pages) A Separate Peace.** Knowles, John. Friendship and tragedy in a private boys' school in New Hampshire during World War II. (186 pages) Being There. Kosinski, Jerzy. A simple gardener inherits a fortune, becomes adviser to the U.S. president and a popular TV personality. (140 pages) The Namesake. Lahiri, Jhumpa.* A sensitive and vivid account of how the son of a family from Bombay deals with the difficulties of being both Indian and American. (291 pages) 6 Extensive Reading To Kill a Mockingbird. Lee, Harper. Racism in the southern United States in the 1960s, as viewed by a young white girl, whose lawyer father defends a black man unjustly accused of a crime. (323 pages) The Grass Is Singing. Lessing, Doris. A novel about racism and the inability to accept another culture in white South Africa during the 1950s. (245 pages) The Call of the Wild.** London, Jack.* In this classic account of life in the Alaskan wilderness, Buck, a family pet, is kidnapped and taken to work as a sled dog. (143 pages) The Daydreamer.** McEwan, Ian. In his daydreams, a boy becomes a cat and then the dreams seem to become real. (137 pages) The Secret Life of Bees. Monk, Sue Ellen.* Lily Owens, a fourteen-year-old white girl from South Carolina, and Rosaleen, her family's black housekeeper, run away and are taken in by a family of beekeepers. (302 pages) Anne of Green Gables.** Montgomery, Lucy Maud. An orphan girl is accepted into a loving family and small community on Prince Edward Island, Canada. (309 pages) The Glory Field. Myers, Walter Dean. An African-American family's history from the time of slavery. Their farm unites them in this story of pride, determination, struggle, and love. (196 pages) Chain of Fire.** Naidoo, Beverley. The story of two young people who struggled against racist policies in South Africa under apartheid. (242 pages) Bel Canto. Patchett, Ann.* The complex relations that develop among a group of hostages, including illustrious foreign guests, and their terrorist captors in a South American country. (318 pages) The Bell far. Plath, Sylvia. In a semiautobiographical novel, a brilliant young woman slides into a depression that almost takes her life. (264 pages) All Quiet on the Western Front. Remarque, Erich Maria. A classic antiwar novel that describes the horrors of trench warfare in Europe during World War I. (236 pages) A Tree Grows in Brooklyn. Smith, Betty. The dreams and trials of a girl growing up in Brooklyn, New York, in a poor, but proud family. (483 pages) The Pearl.** Steinbeck, John.* A poor man finds a big pearl in the sea and hopes to get rich by selling it. Can a pearl bring happiness to his family? (118 pages) The Grapes of Wrath. Steinbeck, John.* A poor farming family is forced in the 1930s to leave Oklahoma and move to California, where they face hardship and more poverty. (455 pages) The Kitchen God's Wife. Tan, Amy.* An immigrant from China tells her American daughter about her past, painting a vivid picture of Chinese life and tradition. (530 pages) Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant. Tyler, Anne.* Three siblings return home as their mother is dying, and they try to make sense of their past. (303 pages) Choosing a Book for Extensive Reading 7 The House of Mirth. Wharton, Edith.* Lily Bart, a poor relative, lives with rich New Yorkers at the end of the nineteenth century and learns to love luxury, but not the vulgar social values she finds. (354 pages) The Picture of Dorian Gray. Wilde, Oscar. Dorian Gray remains handsome and young, but his portrait, hidden in the attic, shows his age and the effects of his evil. (165 pages) Mystery and Suspense The Da Vinci Code. Brown, Dan.* A murder in a museum and a mysterious symbol lead Robert Langdon and Sophie Neveu on a hunt to find a secret before it is lost forever. (467 pages) And Then There Were None. Christie, Agatha.* Ten weekend guests who don't know one another meet on a private island. All they have in common is a secret, evil past. One by one, they die. (275 pages) Whiteout. Follett, Ken.* Samples of a deadly virus are missing, and scientists meet at a lonely cottage during a fierce snowstorm to find a cure amid jealousy, distrust, and attractions. (474 pages) A is for Alibi.** Grafton, Sue.* After serving a jail sentence for a crime she didn't commit, Nikki hires Kinsey Mulhone to find out who was really her husband's killer. (214 pages) The Tenth Man. Greene, Graham.* During World War II, men held prisoner by the Germans are told that three of them must die. One man trades his wealth for his life— and then has to pay. (149 pages) The Broker. Grisham, John.* A master of finance knows too many secrets. Released from prison by the American president, he flees to Europe and begins a new life in order to stay alive. (357 pages) Night Shift. King, Stephen.* Twenty short stories guaranteed to scare the reader: Hidden rats in deep lower cellars, a beautiful girl hanging by a thread above a hellish fate. (326 pages) The Night Manager. Le Cane, John.* After the end of the cold war, spy Jonathon Pine is enlisted to help bring down Roper, a notorious kingpin in the world of arms smuggling and drug dealing. (474 pages) Tunnel Vision. Paretsky, Sara.* Chicago private detective V. I. Warshawsky finds a prominent attorney's wife dead in her office while a homeless family disappears. She finds that these events are connected. (470 pages) The Rottweiler. Rendell, Ruth.* The killer is called "The Rottweiler" because he bites his victims when he murders them. A victim's belongings are found in an antiques shop and everyone who knew her is a suspect. (339 pages) The Sky Is Falling.** Sheldon, Sidney.* This thriller is about the mysterious death of Gary Winthrop, the last of five people in his family to die in a single year. (398 pages) 8 Extensive Reading The No.1 Ladies' Detective Agency.** Smith, Alexander McCall.* As the first woman to run a detective agency in Botswana, Africa, Precious Ramatswe solves delicate and complicated mysteries. (235 pages) The Secret History. Tartt, Donna. As a new student at Hampden College, Richard is accepted by a circle of friends who share a terrible secret. (559 pages) Science Fiction and Fantasy I, Robot. Asimov, Isaac.* Tales about how robots can be developed and taught not to harm humans. Includes the "three laws of robotics." A classic. (224 pages) Fahrenheit 451. Bradbury, Ray.* A classic of science fiction about a society in which books are prohibited and television dominates people's lives. (180 pages) Island of the Aunts.** Ibbotson, Eva.* Two children are snatched by three elderly aunts and taken to a distant island populated by mermaids and strange creatures whose mission is to swim the world humming and healing the oceans. (281 pages) The Left Hand of Darkness. LeGuin, Ursula K.* On a strange planet called Gethen, people do not see each other as men or women. This poses a challenge to an explorer from planet Earth. (304 pages) Animal Farm.** Orwell, George.* The story of what happens when overworked, mistreated animals take over a farm. A story that reflects any place where freedom is attacked. (139 pages) Harty Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone. Rowling, J. K.* This book tells of the beginning of the many adventures of a young boy who goes to a school for wizards. (312 pages) Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring. Tolkien, J. R. R.* This is the first of three books in an epic tale about good against evil. A small creature with hairy feet has a gold ring that belongs to a creature called Gollum. (400 pages) Nonfiction Nonfiction books are factual. Books about history, biography, and science are examples of nonfiction. Reading nonfiction can help develop your vocabulary and knowledge in a specialized area. Biography and Autobiography I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings. Angelou, Maya. A prize-winning American poet writes about her childhood experiences and how she survived violence and racism. (246 pages) Go Ask Alice.** Anonymous. The true story in diary form of how a fifteen-year-old girl became addicted to drugs. (188 pages) Growing Up. Baker, Russell. The memoir of a journalist and humorist growing up in America during the Depression and World War II. (278 pages) Choosing a Book for Extensive Reading J. R. R. Tolkien: The Man Who Created the Lord of the Rings.** Coren, Michael. Tolkien's life experiences as an orphan, a scholar, a soldier, and a professor and how they helped him to create his famous trilogy. (125 pages) Boy.** Dahl, Roald. The funny and sometimes shocking childhood and school experiences of this famous writer of children's books. (160 pages) An American Childhood. Dillard, Annie.* The author's childhood in 1950s Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, described in fond detail. (255 pages) Out of Africa. Dinesen, Isak. The author's experiences from 1914 to 1931 running a coffee plantation in Kenya, first with her husband and later alone. (288 pages) The Spirit Catches You and You Fall Down. Fadinan, Ann. A Hmong family settles in California and comes into conflict with American doctors. (300 pages) Anne Frank: The Diary of a Young Girl.** Frank, Anne. The diary kept by a thirteen-year-old Jewish girl hidden in an apartment with her family for two years in Amsterdam, Holland, during World War II. (308 pages) Homesick.** Fritz, Jean. The author's childhood in China and the dramatic escape of her family at the time of the Chinese Cultural Revolution. (140 pages) Seabiscuit: An American Legend. Hillenbrand, Laura. The story of a racehorse named Seabiscuit who became a winner, and the people who believed in him. (377 pages) Mountains Beyond Mountains. Kidder, Tracy.* The inspiring life and work of Dr. Paul Farmer, who has dedicated himself to the idea that "the only real nation is humanity." (304 pages) Into the Wild. Krakauer, Jon.* How and why a young man walked into the Alaskan wilderness alone and died there. (207 pages) The Autobiography of Malcolm X. Malcolm X with Alex Haley. The dramatic life story of an important figure in African-American history, as told by Malcolm X himself. (350 pages) Long Walk to Freedom. Mandela, Nelson. Mandela's life story, written while he was in a South African prison. (544 pages) Rosa Parks: My Story. Parks, Rosa, with Jim Haskins. A key figure in the civil rights movement tells how she refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus. (188 pages) I. K. Rowling: The Wizard Behind Harry Potter.** Shapiro, Marc. This is the life story of one of the most successful writers of our time. (163 pages) Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. Shostak, Marjorie. The remarkable story of an African woman and her people in the Kalahari Desert, as told by an anthropologist. (402 pages) Almost Lost. Sparks, Beatrice.* The true story of an anonymous teenager's life on the streets of a big city. (239 pages) 10 Extensive Reading Stephen Hawking: A Life in Science. White, M., and G. Gribbin. A biography of Stephen Hawking, the English scientist who is often considered the smartest man alive. (304 pages) Helen Keller: From Tragedy to Triumph.** Wilkie, Katherine E. Helen Keller became deaf and blind when she was a small child. This is the story of her success as a student, a writer, and a lecturer. (192 pages) Other Nonfiction How Did We Find Out About Outer Space?** Asimov, Isaac. Clear explanations of scientific principles, with references to mythology and literature by this famous writer. (59 pages) Bury Me Standing: The Gypsies and Their Journey. Fonseca, Isabel. A striking portrait of the life and history of the Roma (Gypsies) in Eastern Europe. (316 pages) An Inconvenient Truth. Gore, Al. Pictures and text showing the consequences of climate change are accompanied by personal essays. Gore makes a complex and serious issue easy to understand. (327 pages) October Sky. Hickham, Homer. How Hickham and his friends were inspired in 1957 by Sputnik, the Russian satellite, to spend their lives working on rockets for space launches. (428 pages) Field Notes from a Catastrophe. Kolbert, Elizabeth. This book brings the science of climate change to life. The author describes how global warming threatens the traditional way of life in a small Alaskan village. (210 pages) Never Cry Wolf. Mowat, Farley.* How a young scientist in northern Canada learns to respect and understand wolves. (242 pages) Homage to Catalonia. Orwell, George.* In 1937, Orwell joined the fight against Fascism in the Spanish Civil War and wrote this classic report of the ridiculous, pathetic, and, above all, tragic aspects of war. (232 pages) The Omnivore's Dilemma. Pollan, Michael. Pollan follows the journey of four meals from farm to table, weaving together literature, science, and hands-on investigation. This book shows the serious consequences of the way we eat. (464 pages) Why Birds Sing. Rothenberg, David. This book explores the tweets, squawks, and flute-like songs of birds to investigate the scientific mysteries of bird song and how it sparks the human imagination. (256 pages) Choosing a Book for Extensive Reading 11 UNIT 2 Reading and Discussing Nonfiction In this unit, you will practice reading and discussing nonfiction with an article from the New York Times, "Why the Internet Isn't the Death of the Post Office." Before you read the article, preview it. 1. Read the first paragraph. Can you tell what the article will be about? 2. Scan the article for names, dates, numbers, and boldface type. 3. Read the last paragraph on the next page. Now read the article all the way to the end. As you read, underline any unfamiliar words with a pencil but do not look them up in a dictionary now. (You can do that later.) Why the Internet Isn't the Death of the Post Office by James Fallows Millions of people now rent their movies the Netflix way. They fill out a wish list from the 50,009 titles on the company's web site and receive the first few DVD's in the mail; when they mail each one back, the next one on the list is sent. The Netflix model has been exhaustively analyzed for its disruptive, new-economy implications. What will it mean for video stores like Blockbuster, which has, in fact, started a si milar service? What will it mean for movie studios and theaters? What does it show about "long tail" businesses—ones that amalgamate many niche markets, like those for Dutch movies or classic musicals, into a single target audience? But one other major implication has barely been mentioned: what this and similar Internet-based businesses mean for that stalwart of the old economy, the United States Postal Service. Every day, some two million Netflix envelopes come and go as firstclass mail. They are joined by millions of other shipments from online pharmacies, eBay vendors, Amazon.com 12 Extensive Reading and other businesses that did not exist before the Internet. The eclipse of "snail mail" in the age of instant electronic communication has been predicted at least as often as the coming of the paperless office. But the consumption of paper keeps rising. (It has roughly doubled since 1980, with less use of newsprint and much more of ordinary office paper.) And so, with some nuances and internal changes, does the flow of material carried by mail. On average, an American household receives twice as many pieces of mail a day as it did in the 1970's. "Is the Internet hurting the mail, or helping?" asks Michael J. Critelli, a co-chairman of the public-private Mail Industry Task Force. "It's doing both." Mr. Critelli's day job is chief executive of Pitney Bowes—yes, that Pitney Bowes, once known for its postage meters and now a "mail and document management" company. In the last few years, it has also functioned as a research group for the mail industry, commissioning a series of studies, available free at PostInsight(q)PB.com , that contain startling findings about the economic, technological and cultural forces that affect use of mail. The harmful side of the Internet's impact is obvious but statistically less important than many would guess. People naturally write fewer letters when they can send e-mail messages. To leaf through a box of old paper correspondence is to know what has been lost in this shift: the pretty stamps, the varying look and feel of handwritten and typed correspondence, the tangible object that was once in the sender's hands. To stay in instant touch with parents, children and colleagues around the world is to know what's been gained. But even before e-mail, personal letters had shrunk to a tiny share of the flow. As a consultant, Fouad H. Nader, wrote in a Pitney Bowes study, personal mail had "long ago been reduced to a minimum with the proliferation of telephone services in the last SO years." Personal letters of all sorts, called "household to household" correspondence, account for less than 1 percent of the 100 billion pieces of first-class mail that the Postal Service handles each year. Most of that personal mail consists of greeting cards, invitations, announcements, and other mail with "emotional content," a category that is generally holding its own. The same higher-income households that rely the most on e-mail correspondence also send and receive the most letters. Whatever shrinkage email has caused in personal correspondence, it is not likely to do much more. The Internet and allied technologies, meanwhile, are increasing the volume of old-fashioned mail in three ways. The first follows the Netflix example: Postal Service fulfillment of transactions made on the Internet. About two million prescriptions a day— roughly one-fifth of the total—are delivered by first-class mail. EBay's vendors list five million new items daily, and those that are sold ship mainly by mail. One Pitney Bowes study found that online retailers were increasingly using paper catalogs sent through the mail to steer people to their sites. The second force also involves finance. Many studies conclude that people are more and more willing to make payments online, but that they strongly prefer to receive the original bills on paper, by mail. Since the late 1980's, mail to households from credit card compa- nies has risen about 10 percent a year. Americans' financial lives have become more complicated, in part because of choices created by the Internet. In turn, hanks, telecommunication companies, insurance companies and investment houses send more mail. Third is the sleeper: the increasing sophistication of the Postal Service's own technology. Everyone takes for granted that FedEx and the United Parcel Service can track the movement of each item through their systems. The Postal Service has now installed similar scanning equipment, and in principle it can bar-code and scan every envelope or postcard and know where it is at any time. In reality, it does this mainly for a fee, for businesses that want to know their material has reached the right audience at the right time—for instance, the Thursday before a weekend sale at a local store. In Internet terms, this and related improvements are intended to make advertising mail less like spam—unwanted and discarded—and more like embedded ads, tied to the content of a particular web site. "Over time, there is an increasing ability to send you only what's interesting to you, at a time when you're interested in it," Mr. Critelli says. If you have just moved, for example, that may mean mail from your new area's window-cleaning or handyman services. He says response rates to these targeted mailings are better than the dismal rates for the usual direct-mail campaigns. The most touching artifact among these e-mail studies is a survey conducted by the Postal Service called "The Mail Moment." "Two thirds of all consumers do not expect to receive personal mail, but when they do, it makes their day," it concluded. "This 'hope' keeps them coming back each day." Even in this age of technology, according to the survey, 55 percent of Americans said they looked forward to discovering what each day's mail might hold. Now I'll confess my bias. My first real job was at the post office. On the day when 1 was paroled from the sorting floor to substitute for an absent letter carrier, I felt as if I were bringing "the mail moment" to people along the route. It's nice to think that such moments will survive the Internet. (Source: The New York Times. September 4, 2005) A. Write any unfamiliar words that made comprehension difficult and write their dictionary definitions. Compare your words with those of another student. Do you have any of the same words? B. Discuss the article with another student. Consider these questions. 1. Where does the writer tell you what this article is about? 2. What do you already know about this? 3. Were there any parts of the article that you did not understand? C. Read the article again. Then discuss these questions with a group of three or four students. 1. 2. 3. 4. Why does the writer believe that the Internet is not the death of the Post Office? Do you agree with the writer? Why or why not? What evidence does the writer give to support his ideas? How do you use the post office? 5. Do you ever buy things over the Internet? Reading and Discussing Nonfiction 13 UNIT 3 Reading and Discussing Fiction In this unit you will practice reading and discussing fiction with a short story titled "All Summer in a Day," by Ray Bradbury. Before you read, discuss these questions with another student. 1. Have you ever heard of this author? Have you read any of his stories or books or seen movies made from them? 2. Ray Bradbury's other books include Fahrenheit 451 and The Martian Chronicles. Do these titles help you to guess what kind of fiction Bradbury writes? 3. Think about the title of this story, "All Summer in a Day," and try to imagine what the title might refer to. Guess what type of story this will be. Read the story all the way to the end. As you read, underline any unfamiliar words with a pencil but do not look them up in a dictionary now. Mark any confusing parts of the story with a question mark (?). Make notes in the margin about your reactions. Then complete the exercises that follow. All Summer in a Day Ready?" Ready." " Now?" "Soon." "Do the scientists really know? Will it happen today, will it?" "Look, look; see for yourself!" The children pressed to each other like so many roses, so many weeds, intermixed, peering out for a look at the hidden sun. It rained. It had been raining for seven years; thousands upon thousands of days compounded and filled from one end to the other with rain, with the drum and gush of water, with the sweet crystal fall of showers and the concussion of storms so heavy they were tidal waves come over the islands. A thousand forests had been crushed under the rain and grown up a thousand times to be crushed again. And this was the way life was forever on the planet Venus, and this was the schoolroom of the children of the rocket men and women who had come to a raining world to set up civilization and live out their lives. "It's stopping, it's stopping!" "Yes, yes!" Margot stood apart from them, from these children who could never remember a time when there wasn't rain and rain and rain. They were all nine years old, and if there had been a day, seven years ago, when the sun came out for an hour and showed its face to the stunned world, they could not recall. 14 Extensive Reading Sometimes, at night, she heard them stir, in remembrance, and she knew they were dreaming and remembering gold or a yellow crayon or a coin large enough to buy the world with. She knew they thought they remembered a warmness, like a blushing in the face, in the body, in the arms and legs and trembling hands. But then they always awoke to the tatting drum, the endless shaking down of clear bead necklaces upon the roof, the walk, the gardens, the forests, and their dreams were gone. All day yesterday they had read in class about the sun. About how like a lemon it was, and how hot. And they had written small stories or essays or poems about it: I think the sun is a flower, That blooms for just one hour. That was Margot's poem, read in a quiet voice in the still classroom while the rain was falling outside. " Aw, you didn't write that!" protested one of the boys. "I did," said Margot. "I did." " William!" said the teacher. But that was yesterday. Now the rain was slackening, and the children were crushed in the great thick windows. " Where's teacher?" " She'll be back." " She'd better hurry, we'll miss it!" They turned on themselves, like a feverish wheel, all tumbling spokes. Margot stood alone. She was a very frail girl who looked as if she had been lost in the rain for years and the rain had washed out the blue from her eyes and the red from her mouth and the yellow from her hair. She was an old photograph dusted from an album, whitened away, and if she spoke at all her voice would be a ghost. Now she stood, separate, staring at the rain and the loud wet world beyond the huge glass. " What're you looking at?" said William. Margot said nothing. "Speak when you're spoken to." He gave her a shove. But she did not move; rather she let herself be moved only by him and nothing else. They edged away from her, they would not look at her. She felt them go away. And this was because she would play no games with them in the echoing tunnels of the underground city. If they tagged her and ran, she stood blinking after them and did not follow. When the class sang songs about happiness and life and games her lips barely moved. Only when they sang about the sun and the summer did her lips move as she watched the drenched windows. And then, of course, the biggest crime of all was that she had come here only five years ago from Earth, and she remembered the sun and the way the sun was and the sky was when she was four in Ohio. And they, they had been on Venus all their lives, and they had been only two years old when last the sun came out and had long since forgotten the color and heat of it and the way it really was. But Margot remembered. "It's like a penny," she said once, eyes closed. "No, it's not!" the children cried. "It's like a fire," she said, "in the stove." "You're lying, you don't remember!" cried the children. But she remembered and stood quietly apart from all of them and watched the patterning windows. And once, a month ago, she had refused to shower in the school shower rooms, had clutched her hands to her ears and over her head, screaming the water mustn't touch her head. So after that, dimly, dimly, she sensed it, she was different and they knew her difference and kept away. Reading and Discussing Fiction 15 There was talk that her father and mother were taking her back to Earth next year; it seemed vital to her that they do so, though it would mean the loss of thousands of dollars to her family. And so, the children hated her for all these reasons of big and little consequence. They hated her pale snow face, her waiting silence, her thinness, and her possible future. " Get away!" The boy gave her another push. "What're you waiting for?" Then, for the first time, she turned and looked at him. And what she was waiting for was in her eyes. " Well, don't wait around here!" cried the boy savagely. "You won't see nothing!" Her lips moved. " Nothing!" he cried. "It was all a joke, wasn't it?" He turned to the other children. "Nothing's happening today. Is it?" They all blinked at him and then, understanding, laughed and shook their heads. "Nothing, nothing!" "Oh, but," Margot whispered, her eyes helpless. But this is the day, the scientists predict, they say, they know, the sun . . ." All a joke!" said the boy, and seized her roughly. "Hey, everyone, let's put her in a closet before teacher comes!" "No," said Margot, falling back. They surged about her, caught her up and bore her, protesting, and then pleading, and then crying, back into a tunnel, a room, a closet, where they slammed and locked the door. They stood looking at the door and saw it tremble from her beating and throwing herself against it. They heard her muffled cries. Then, smiling, they turned and went out and back down the tunnel, just as the teacher arrived. " Ready, children?" She glanced at her watch. " Yes!" said everyone. Are we all here?" " Yes!" The rain slackened still more. They crowded to the huge door. The rain stopped. It was as if, in the midst of a film concerning an avalanche, a tornado, a hurricane, a volcanic eruption, something had, first, gone wrong with the sound apparatus, thus muffling and finally cutting off all noise, all of the blasts and repercussions and thunders, and then, second, ripped the film from the projector and inserted in its place a peaceful tropical slide which did not move or tremor. The world ground to a standstill. The silence was so immense and unbelievable that you felt your ears had been stuffed or you had lost your hearing altogether. The children put their hands to their ears. They stood apart. The door slid back and the smell of the silent, waiting world came in to them. The sun came out. It was the color of flaming bronze and it was very large. And the sky around it was a blazing blue tile color. And the jungle burned with sunlight as the children, released from their spell, rushed out, yelling, into the springtime. " Now, don't go too far," called the teacher after them. "You've only two hours, you know. You wouldn't want to get caught out!" But they were running and turning their faces up to the sky and feeling the sun on their cheeks li ke a warm iron; they were taking off their jackets and letting the sun burn their arms. " Oh, it's better than the sun lamps, isn't it?" " Much, much better!" They stopped running and stood in the great jungle that covered Venus, that grew and never 16 Extensive Reading stopped growing, tumultuously, even as you watched it. It was a nest of octopi, clustering up great arms of flesh-like weed, wavering, flowering in this brief spring. It was the color of rubber and ash, this jungle, from the many years without sun. It was the color of stones and white cheeses and ink, and it was the color of the moon. The children lay out, laughing, on the jungle mattress, and heard it sigh and squeak under them, resilient and alive. They ran among the trees, they slipped and fell, they pushed each other, they played hide-and-seek and tag, but most of all they squinted at the sun until tears ran down their faces, they put their hands up to that yellowness and that amazing blueness and they breathed of the fresh, fresh air and listened and listened to the silence which suspended them in a blessed sea of no sound and no motion. They looked at everything and savored everything. Then, wildly, like animals escaped from their caves, they ran and ran in shouting circles. They ran for an hour and did not stop running. And then— In the midst of their running one of the girls wailed. Everyone stopped. The girl, standing in the open, held out her hand. " Oh, look, look," she said, trembling. They came slowly to look at her opened palm. In the center of it, cupped and huge, was a single raindrop. She began to cry, looking at it. They glanced quietly at the sky. "Oh. Oh." A few cold drops fell on their noses and their cheeks and their mouths. The sun faded behind a stir of mist. A wind blew cool around them. They turned and started to walk back toward the underground house, their hands at their sides, their smiles vanishing away. A boom of thunder startled them and like leaves before a new hurricane, they tumbled upon each other and ran. Lightning struck ten miles away, five miles away, a mile, a half mile. The sky darkened into midnight in a flash. They stood in the doorway of the underground for a moment until it was raining hard. Then they closed the door and heard the gigantic sound of the rain falling in tons and avalanches, everywhere and forever. " Will it be seven more years?" " Yes. Seven." Then one of them gave a little cry. " Margot!" " What?" "She's still in the closet where we locked her." " Margot." They stood as if someone had driven them, like so many stakes, into the floor. They looked at each other and then looked away. They glanced out at the world that was raining now and raining and raining steadily. They could not meet each other's glances. Their faces were solemn and pale. They looked at their hands and feet, their faces down. " Margot." One of the girls said, "Well . . . ?" No one moved. "Go on," whispered the girl. They walked slowly down the hall in the sound of cold rain. They turned through the doorway to the room in the sound of the storm and thunder, lightning on their faces, blue and terrible. They walked over to the closet door slowly and stood by it. Behind the closet door was only silence. They unlocked the door, even more slowly, and let Margot out. Reading and Discussing Fiction 17 EXERCISE 1 A. Write any unfamiliar words that made comprehension difficult and write their dictionary definitions. Compare your words with those of another student. Do you have any of the same words? B. Discuss these questions with another student. You may look back at the story if necessary. 1. Did you enjoy reading the story? Explain your answer. 2. Were there any parts of the story that you did not understand? Which ones? 3. Were there any unfamiliar words that you need to look up in order to understand the story? 4. Why do you think the author decided to call this story "All Summer in a Day"? C. Read the story a second time. Then, working with two or three other students, retell the story to each other in your own words. EXERCISE 2 A. In this exercise you will analyze the story for the way the writer sets the scene and tells us "who," "when," and "where." (This is called the "exposition.") Working with another student, look back at the first part of "All Summer in a Day" and fill in the table. Main characters (list and describe): Setting (time): Setting (place): B. Compare your work with that of another pair of students. If you disagree, look back at the story to check your answers. 18 Extensive Reading EXERCISE 3 A. Listed below are the events that make up the plot of "All Summer in a Day." Working with another student, put the events in chronological order by numbering them from Ito 11. a. They let Margot out of the closet. b. The children stood at the window waiting for the sun. c. The children remembered that Margot was in the closet. d. All day the children read and wrote about the sun in class. e. The teacher left the classroom. f. The children put Margot in the closet. g. William and the children began to mistreat Margot. h. The whole world seemed silent and the sun came out. i. Raindrops began to fall and a boom of thunder startled the children. j. The children went inside. k. The children ran and played in the sunlight. B. Compare your answers with those of another pair of students. If you disagree, look back at the story to check your answers. EXERCISE 4 A. In the chart below you will find the terms that are often used to discuss the main elements of the plot in a work of literature. Look again at the events listed in Exercise 3 and decide where they belong in the chart. Write the letters (a-k) of the events in the appropriate box. The first one has been done for you. Note: Like many other stories, this story can be interpreted in several different ways, depending on the reader's point of view. Therefore, a variety of different answers is possible in this chart. Be prepared to explain your choices. Exposition (Where the writer provides essential information about the story: "who," "where," "when," and "what.") b Complicating action (Often involving a conflict between two characters.) Climax (The moment of greatest tension, usually also the turning point in the story.) Resolution (The ending, which may or may not be happy, and may even be left open for the reader to imagine.) Reading and Discussing Fiction 19 B. Compare your answers in the chart with those of two or three other students. If the answers are different, explain them to each other. C. Discuss these questions with two or three other students. 1. Did the children have any doubts about whether or not they should be locking Margot in the closet? How can you tell? 2. How do you think Margot feels being locked in the closet? 3. Was the author trying to teach a lesson to the readers of the story? If so, what was the lesson? 4. How would you describe the ending of this story? Happy, sad, or inconclusive (incomplete)? Explain. 5. Could this story have an alternate ending? Try to imagine one and describe it. EXERCISE 5 A. In "All Summer in a Day" Bradbury used rich descriptive language. Working with another student, look back at the story to find examples of the way he used words to create images and tell the story. 1. The setting (when and where) a. a raining world b. c. d. 2. Margot a. pale snow face b. c. d. 3. The children a. running and turning their faces up to the sky b. c. d. 4. William a. cried savagely b. c. d. 20 Extensive Reading 5. The sun a. flaming bronze b. c. d. 6. The rain a. the drum and gush of water b. c. d. 7. The sky a. stir of mist b. c. d. B. Compare your answers with those of another pair of students. If you disagree, look back at the story and explain your choices. Reading and Discussing Fiction 21 UNIT 4 Responding to and Reporting on Your Extensive Reading Books Sharing your experience of reading with others can benefit you in several ways. First of all, your reading comprehension improves when you talk about what you read. And second, sharing ideas and information about your book with others is enjoyable, and this enjoyment can motivate you to read more. This unit gives you suggestions for how to share books with your classmates and teacher. Book Conferences A book conference is a one-on-one conversation about your book with the teacher. Since a book conference is not a test, you will not need to remember details from the book. There is no need to prepare notes in advance of the conference. Your teacher may ask various questions, including: Why did you choose this book? What was your reaction? Did you enjoy it? What do you already know about the subject? Does the book relate in any way to your own life? If so, how? What are your favorite characters in the book? What was your favorite part? Reading Circles A reading circle is a small group of four to six students who meet regularly to talk about their extensive reading books and compare reading experiences. Instructions for Reading Circles 1. Form a group with about four other students. 2. Take turns telling the other students in your group briefly about your book (not more than five minutes). Include the following: Title, author and genre (fiction, non-fiction, biography, etc.); Publication date; Number of pages; Reaction so far (Does it seem interesting or involving?); Level of difficulty for you (Are there many new words? Is the subject familiar or new for you?); Predictions about the book (What might happen next?). 3. One student in the group should time the student who is talking. 4. While each student is talking, the others should listen carefully, take brief notes, and ask questions afterward. 5. Follow the same procedure for each meeting of your group. Include the following in your talk: number of pages read so far; your reaction at this point (Are you enjoying it so far?); difficulties or problems in reading. Read aloud to your reading circle a short passage (about half a page) that you especially like or that you find surprising. 6. When you finish a book, tell your teacher and schedule a book conference. 22 Extensive Reading Book Presentations A book presentation is a brief (about five minutes) oral report to the class about a book that you have finished reading. To prepare a presentation, make five note cards, one for each of the following points. 1. About the book and the author: Title, author, and year first published; information about the author (from the back of the book or the Internet); genre and number of pages 2. Difficulty: Language (use of technical or unusual vocabulary, use of dialect, complicated sentences); plot or point of view (multiple points of view or multiple time frames) 3. Key elements of the plot (very briefly) 4. Your reaction to the book: Did you enjoy it? Why or why not? Would you read another book by the same author? Would you recommend this book to your classmates? 5. One or two of the following topics: A part of the book or one of the characters that interests you particularly; one of the characters that you like and identify with; personal experiences or thoughts related to the book; larger issues that are dealt with in the book (e.g., racism, poverty, war, etc.) Here is an example of a note card for the first point. Title: Mountains Beyond Mountains, by Tracy Kidder (2004) Tracy Kidder graduated from Harvard and studied at the University of Iowa. . . served in the army during the Vietnam War . . has won many prizes including the Pulitzer and the National Book Award . . lives in Massachusetts and in Maine Other books include The Soul of a New Machine and Home Town Genre: Biography (of Or. Paul Farmer) 301 pages When you have completed the note cards, try out your presentation aloud several times to practice the way you will present your ideas. Time yourself to see how long the presentation takes. If it takes more than five minutes, cut out some parts and try again. If it takes less than five minutes, think of more information to add to some of your note cards. Your Extensive Reading Books 23 Book Response Form When you finish reading a book, complete a copy of this form and give it to your teacher. Book Response Form Book title: Author: Publisher: Number of pages: Date published: Genre (Type of book)—Circle one: novel mystery science fiction history science/technology other: romance biography Why did you decide to read this book? Were you glad that you decided to read it? Explain. What did you like best about this book? What did you like least? Would you recommend this book to a friend? Explain. On a scale of 1-10, how difficult was this book for you? (1 = easy, 10 = difficult) Why? 24 Extensive Reading Vocabulary Building Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary UNIT 1 Good reading comprehension depends on understanding the words you are reading. The more words you recognize and understand in a text, the better your comprehension will be. What do you do when you encounter (meet) a new word in your reading? Ask another student about the meaning. Try to guess the meaning of the word from the context. Look up the definition in a dictionary. Skip over the word and continue reading. Analyze the word for clues to its meaning. Compare your answers with those of another student and discuss these questions: • When do you use these strategies? • What are the advantages or disadvantages of each? In fact, a good reader does all of the above at different times, depending on the word, the text, and the reason for reading it. In this unit you will learn and practice five important strategies for building your vocabulary. Strategy 1: Check your knowledge of the words used most frequently in English Advances in computer technology have made it possible for researchers to analyze thousands of English-language texts containing millions of words. From this research they have learned that a small percentage of words—about 2,000—are used much more frequently than all the other words. In fact, these 2,000 most frequent words account for almost 80 percent of most texts. If you know these words, you have a much better chance of understanding what you read. EXERCISE 1 A. Before you look at the list of the 2,000 most frequent words in English, answer this question: How many unfamiliar words do you think you will find on the list? (Make a guess.) B. Now turn to the list of the 2,000 most frequent words in Appendix 1 on page 303. Read through the list and mark all the words you DO NOT recognize. How many of these words did you mark? Compare this number with your guess in Part A. Did you have a good idea of the extent of your vocabulary? If you have marked many words on this list, you probably have some difficulty understanding what you read. You need to spend extra time working on your vocabulary. 26 Vocabulary Building Strategy 2: Focus on the words used in academic texts Research on academic texts (textbooks and academic journals) has shown that certain words are used very frequently in these texts, regardless of the subject matter. These words allow academic writers to explain or generalize their ideas or research, and to compare them with the work of others. Learning these 570 academic words can improve your comprehension of academic materials. EXERCISE 2 A. Before you look at the Academic Word List, answer this question: How many of the words on the list do you think you will recognize? (Make a guess.) B. Turn to the Academic Word List in Appendix 2 on page 308. Read through the list and mark the words that you DO recognize. How many of these words did you mark? If you have marked some of the words in the Academic Word List, you have a good start on building your academic vocabulary. In Part 2 and in the Focus on Vocabulary sections in the units in Part 3, you will work on learning more words from this list. Strategy 3: Use the dictionary effectively Along with the definition, a dictionary provides a great deal of other information about a word. It tells you the part of speech of the word (noun, verb, adjective, etc.), how to pronounce it, and how to divide it into syllables. An example sentence is often included as well. Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary 27 EXERCISE 3 A. Use this dictionary page to answer the questions. 1. How many syllables are there in scrutinize? scrub' iskrAb/ v. 1 [I,T] to rub somefhing hard, espe- cially with something rough, in order to clean it: The kitchen floor needs to be scrubbed and waxed. I The children's freshly-scrubbed faces beamed up at us. 3. What part of speech is scrupulous? INFORMAL, fo decide not to do something that you had planned, especially because there is a problem: Yesterday's shuttle launch was 2 [T usually passive] scrubbed just ten minutes before liftoff scrub up phr. v. [I] to wash your hands and arms before doing a medical operation 4. When your teacher scrutinizes your work, how do you feel? 5. What else can you scrunch besides a napkin? scrub 2 n. 1 [U] low bushes and trees that grow in very dry soil 2 scrubs [plural] INFORMAL a loose green shirt and pants worn by doctors during medical operations scrub•ber PskrAtvri n. [C] a plastic or metal object or a brush that you use to clean pans or floors scrub brush l'skrxh-brat/ n. [C] a stiff brush that you use for cleaning things --see picfure at BRUSH' scrubby l'skrAbi/ adj. covered by low bushes: scrubby terrain scrub•land i'skrAblamdi n. [U] land thaf is covered with low bushes scruff /skrAf/ n. by the scruff of the neck if you hold 6. What food do you consider scrumptious? 7. When pronouncing the word scrutinize, where should you place the emphasis? a person or animal by the scruff of their neck, you hold fhe flesh, fur, or clothes at the back of the neck scruffy i'skrAfil adj. scruffier, scruffiest dirty and messy and not taken care of very well: a scruffy sweatshirt scrum /skram/ n. [C] an arrangement of players in the game of RUGBY, in which they are pushing very close together scrump•tious PskrAmpios1 adj. INFORMAL food that is scrumptious tastes very good: scrumptious cheesecake scrunch /skrAnt [7 v. [T always adv./prep.] INFOR- to crush and twist something into a small round shape: [scrunch sth up/into etc.] She tore out the MAL pages and scrunched them up into a ball. scrunch•ie J'skrAntli/ n. [C] a circular rubber band 7. How do you spell the past tense of the verb scrub? that is covered with cloth, used for holding hair in place scruple' Pskrupol n. [C usually plural] a belief about right and wrong that prevents you from doing something bad: He has absolutely no scruples about , claiming other people's work as his own. FORMAI, to be willing to do something, even though it may have harmful or bad effects: They did not scruple to bomb scruple 2 v. not scruple to do sth innocent civilians. scru•pu•lous i'skrupy3k s," adj. 1 careful to be , honest and fair. and making sure that every detail is correct: The finance department is always scrupulous about their bookkeeping. --opposite J:NSCRUPULOLS 2 done very carefully so that every detail is correct: This job requires scrupulous attention to detail. - scrupulously adv.: Employees' hands must he kept scrupulously clean, -- scrupulousness n. [U] scru•ti•nize i'skrut n,a17./ v. [T] to examine someone or something very thoroughly and carefully: Detectives scrutinized the area. looking for clues. (Source: Longman Advanced American Dictionary. White Plains, NY: Pearson Longman, 2005) B. Compare your answers with those of another student. 28 Vocabulary Building Strategy 4: Keep a vocabulary notebook When you encounter new words, write them in a notebook that you use only for vocabulary and not for other course work. (A small notebook is preferable so you can carry it around with you.) This notebook will help you study vocabulary more effectively. With all your words in one place in the notebook, you can easily check your knowledge of words you have studied before. How to organize and use the notebook 1. Decide on a method for putting words in order. Many students prefer alphabetical order, though you may also order words according to other categories, such as topic or source (words from extensive reading books, words from Advanced Reading Power, and words from other course books). 2. Use two pages in the notebook. On the left-hand page, write a word, the part of speech, and the word in syllables. Under the word, write the sentence in which you found it. Then, on the right-hand page, write the meaning. (Note: If you can learn the words more quickly using definitions in your native language, and your teacher agrees, you may write the meanings in that language.) 3. Check your knowledge of the words by covering one of the pages and trying to remember the information on the other. Example: 1. assumption—noun (as-sump-tion) 1. Something that you think is true o How could you make an assumption although you have no proof about their family without meeting them? , ., Strategy 5: Use study cards Study cards can help you review words and make them part of your permanent vocabulary. When you have made a set of cards, carry them with you and test yourself often. Add new words that you encounter and want to learn. You should not remove a word from your set until you are completely sure of the meaning and can recall it instantly. To make study cards, you will need small, blank cards (3 x 5 inches or about 7 x 12 cm). Example: On one side of the card write a word, the part of speech, the word in syllables, and the phrase or sentence in which you found the word. vary (verb) va -ry Ideas of beauty vary from one culture to another. Strategies for Building a Powerful Vocabulary 29 On the other side of the card, write the dictionary definition of the word as it was used in the passage. to differ from other things of the same type EXERCISE 4 Choose five words that you have encountered in your reading (in this textbook or any other book). Fill in the information for five study cards, following the example. Side A Word and part of speech: Word in syllables: Sentence: Side B Dictionary definition: Guidelines for Using Study Cards • Go through all your cards twice on your own: Look at each word and say it aloud. If you remember the definition, say it aloud, too. If you do not remember the definition, look at the back of the card. Then say the word and the definition aloud. • Go through the cards again with another student: Ask him/her to read each word to you. Tell him/her the definition. If you do not remember it, ask him/her to tell you. Then repeat it aloud. • Rearrange your cards each time you use them, so they are in a different order. Put cards for especially difficult words in a separate group and quiz yourself on them. Then return the cards to the large group. • Use the words on the study cards in conversation and in writing. • Carry your cards with you and review your words whenever you have a few spare moments. 30 Vocabulary Building UNIT 2 Learning New Words from Your Reading To learn words from your reading: • Read a lot. Research has shown that in order to learn a word, you must encounter it many times. Each time you see the word in context, you build up a stronger sense of its meaning. The best way to increase the number of encounters with words and to learm how words are used is by reading extensively. • Work with a new word in a way that requires active thinking. Simply noticing the word and looking up the meaning is not enough. You need to analyze the word and use it in speaking and writing. • Note how a new word is used. If you look closely at the context and write down the sentence where you found the word, you are more likely to remember it. Choosing Words to Learn Since it would be impossible to learn all the new words you encounter in your reading, you should decide which ones would be the most useful for you and try to learn those. A word will be useful for you if it is included in one of the word lists (Appendices 1 and 2), or if you have encountered it several times and think you will encounter it again. In this unit you will practice selecting words from short passages. Example: A. Read the excerpt from a textbook and complete the tasks that follow. Why Is Reading in a Second Language Sometimes Difficult? Cross-cultural research shows that cultures have varying attitudes about language in general and that these differences are reflected in the printed word. As a result, the way ideas are organized in expository writing (e.g., in essays) varies across cultures. Originally called to our attention by Kaplan (1966), this suggestion has inspired research in several different languages. Ostler, for example, found that the patterns of expository writing in a language "reflect the patterns valued in the native culture." Researchers have found significant differences in text organization between English and the Korean, German, Japanese, Arabic, and Athabaskan languages. It is logical to conclude from this that when people read in a second language they comprehend best the texts that meet their beliefs and expectations about the patterns of written language. To the extent that the patterns in the text of a second language are different from those of the first language, the reader is likely to have difficulty comprehending. Learning New Words from Your Reading 31 Mark each statement T (true) or F (false). 1. Texts such as essays have the same form in every language. 2. Different cultures have different ways of organizing texts. F T 3. When you read in a second language, you can find the same patterns as in your first language. 4. It is easier to read in a language that has text patterns similar to those in your first language. Compare your answers with those of another student. B. Read the passage again and underline the words that are new to you. C. Look at the word lists in Appendices 1 and 2 (pages 303 and 308) for the words you underlined. Choose two of your underlined words that are on the lists and write them below. Then write the part of speech and the dictionary definition that best fits each word as it is used in the passage. Definition Word 1. research (noun) serious study of a subject to learn new facts about it 2. varies (verb) to change 3. 4. — EXERCISE 1 -A. Read the excerpt from a newspaper article and complete the tasks that follow. How Culture Molds Habits of Thought By Erica Goode For more than a century, Western philosophers and psychologists have based their discussions of mental life on a cardinal assumption: that the same basic processes underlie all human thoughf, whether in the mountains of Tibet or the grasslands of the Serengeti. Cultural differences might dictate what people thought about. Teenage boys in Botswana, for example, might discuss cows with the same passion that New York teenagers reserve for sports cars. But the habits of thought—the strategies people adopted in processing information and making sense of the world around them—were, Western scholars assumed, the same for everyone, exemplified by, among other things, a devotion to logical reasoning, a penchant for cat(Source: The New York Times, August 8, 2000, excerpt, p. D1) 32 Vocabulary Building egorization and an urge to understand situations and events in linear terms of cause and effect. Recent work by a social psychologist at the University of Michigan, however, is turning this long-held view of mental functioning upside down. In a series of studies comparing European Americans to East Asians, Dr. Richard Nisbett and his colleagues have found that people who grow up in different cultures do not just think about different things: they think differently. " We used to think that everybody uses categories in the same way, that logic plays the same kind of role for everyone in the understanding of everyday life, that memory, perception, rule application and so on are the same," Dr. Nisbett said. "But we're now arguing that cognitive processes themselves are just far more malleable than mainstream psychology assumed." Mark each statement T (true) or F (false). 1. People think about different things depending on where they live. 2. People all think in the same way. 3. A social psychologist has come up with a new idea about how we think. 4. Logic is the same in every culture. Compare your answers with those of another student. B. Read the passage again and underline the words that are new to you. C. Look on the word lists in Appendices 1 and 2 (pages 303 and 308) for the words you underlined. Choose five of your underlined words that are on the lists and write them below. Then write the part of speech and the dictionary definition that best fits each word as it is used in the passage Word Definition 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. D. Write a new sentence for each word above. The sentences should show that you understand the meaning of each word as it is used in the passage. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. E. Ask another student to read your sentences. Then discuss these questions. 1. Do the sentences make sense? 2. Do the sentences show the meaning of the words? Learning New Words from Your Reading 33 EXERCISE 2 A. Read the excerpt from a textbook and complete the tasks that follow Symbols Reality for human beings is not action or feeling but meaning. Humans are symbolic creatures; a symbol is anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by the people who share culture. A whistle, a wall of graffiti, a flashing red light, a fist raised in the air—all serve as symbols. We see the human capacity to create and manipulate symbols in the various ways a simple wink of the eye can convey interest, understanding, or insult. We are so dependent on our culture's symbols that we take them for granted. Often, however, we gain a heightened sense of the importance of a symbol when someone uses it in an unconventional way, say when a person in a political demonstration burns a U.S. flag. Entering an unfamiliar culture also reminds us of the power of symbols; culture shock is nothing more than the inability to "read" meaning in one's surroundings. We feel lost, unsure of how to act, and sometimes frightened—a consequence of slipping outside the symbolic web of culture. Culture shock is both what travelers experience and what they inflict on others by acting in ways that may offend them. For example, because North Americans consider dogs to be beloved household pets, travelers to the People's Republic of China might well be appalled to discover people roasting dogs as a wintertime meal. On the other hand, a North American who orders a hamburger in India causes offense to Hindus, who hold cows to be sacred and thus unfit for human consumption. ( Source: John J. Macionis, Society: The Basics, 4th Edition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1998) Mark each statement T (true) or F (false). 1. A symbol is usually written. 2. We always notice the symbols of our own culture. 3. In an unfamiliar culture, we feel confused by the symbols. 4. Culture shock is mostly about food. Compare your answers with those of another student. B. Read the passage again and underline the words that are new to you. C. Look on the word lists in Appendices 1 and 2 (pages 303 and 308) for the words you underlined. Choose five of your underlined words that are on the lists and write them below. Then write the part of speech and the dictionary definition that best fits each word as it is used in the passage. Word 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 34 Vocabulary Building Definition D. Write a new sentence for each word above. The sentences should show that you understand the meaning of each word as it is used in the passage. 1 2. 3. 4. 5. E. Ask another student to read your sentences. Then discuss these questions. 1. Do the sentences make sense? 2. Do the sentences show the meaning of the words? ' EXERCISE 3 A. Write the words you chose in Exercises 1 and 2. Choose five or more of those words and make study cards for them. B. Review your study cards alone and then with another student. Learning New Words from Your Reading 35 UNIT 3 Inferring Meaning from Context When you encounter an unfamiliar word, a good strategy is to infer (or guess) its meaning from the context. You may not always be able to infer an exact meaning, but you can often get the general meaning—enough to continue reading with understanding. You can benefit from this strategy in three ways: • It allows you to continue reading and stay focused on the ideas in the text. • It helps you develop a more complete understanding of the word and the way it is used. • It helps you remember the word in the future. Guidelines for Inferring Meaning from the Immediate Context • Analyze the way a word is used in a sentence. What part of speech is it (noun, verb, adjective, adverb, etc.)? • Look at the words that are used with it. These often help determine meaning. For example, if it is an adjective, what is the noun? If it is a verb, what is the subject? • Think about the topic and the meaning of the sentence. How does the word fit in? Example: Follow the guidelines above to infer the general meaning of the underlined word in each of the three sentences below. Then write the inferred meaning (in English or another language). Do not use a dictionary. The president's spokesman said that it was too early to comment on the outcome of the meeting. One unfortunate outcome of the elections was that both parties were weaker than before. The outcome of hospital-based treatment was clearly better than home-based treatment. Inferred meaning: the result or effect of something Note: In Exercises 1-3, the underlined words are used with their most common definition, usually listed first in the dictionary. 36 Vocabulary Building EXERCISE 1 A. Follow the guidelines to infer the general meaning of the underlined word in each set of three sentences below Then write the inferred meaning (in English or another language). Do not use a dictionary. 1. Dark clouds appeared and ten minutes later everyone at the football match was completely drenched. When he pulled her out of the swimming pool, her dress was drenched and hung close to her body. Seymour screamed and sat up suddenly in bed, drenched in a cold sweat. Inferred meaning: 2. The stranger never said a word, but thrust a folded piece of paper into Pilar's hand. He thrust his hands into his pockets and walked slowly away. As she straightened up, she felt a sudden pain like a knife being thrust into her lower back. Inferred meaning: B. Compare your answers with those of another student. Then look up drenched and thrust in the dictionary. Compare the dictionary definitions with your inferred meanings and write the dictionary definitions below: drenched: thrust: EXERCISE 2 A. Follow the guidelines to infer the general meaning of the underlined word in each set of three sentences below. Then write the inferred meaning (in English or another language). 1. Never tamper with electrical fittings without first switching off the main power supply. It is illegal to add, take away, or otherwise tamper with the content of these videos. Several research assistants were accused of tampering with the results of the experiments. Inferred meaning: 2. When the train pulled out and the crowd had thinned, he could see a small, forlorn figure sitting on a suitcase. Drennan held on to a forlorn hope that somehow at the end of the war they would all be together again. Inferring Meaning from Context 37 Two forlorn trees stood out, black and naked against the snow-covered fields. Inferred meaning: B. Compare your answers with those of another student. Then look up tamper and forlorn in the dictionary. Compare the dictionary definitions with your inferred meanings and write the dictionary definitions below: tamper: forlorn: A. Follow the guidelines to infer the general meaning of the underlined word in each set of three sentences below. Then write the inferred meaning (in English or another language). 1. The financial woes of Fiat and other big Italian companies could lead to some important changes in the Italian economy. Take a vacation in the South Pacific and leave behind all your winter worries and woes. It did not take long for him to discover the source of all his friend's woes, but there was little he could do to help. Inferred meaning: 2. Recent surveys show that many parents are very worried about the possibility of their child being abducted. In 1976, a school bus driver and twenty-six children were abducted at gunpoint in California. The young woman admitted in tears that she had made up the story of how she was abducted and held by the men for thirty-six hours. Inferred meaning: B. Compare your answers with those of another student. Then look up woes and abducted in the dictionary. Compare the dictionary definitions with your inferred meanings and write the dictionary definitions below: woes: abducted: 38 Vocabulary Building Using Context to Choose a Dictionary Definition If you are able to infer the general meaning of a word from the context, you can make better use of the dictionary. In fact, many words have more than one definition and you need to choose the most appropriate one. For example, the word laugh (as a verb) has eleven different definitions in the Longman Advanced American Dictionary. Definitions for the word get cover three pages! Guidelines for Choosing a Definition in the Dictionary • Determine the part of speech of the unknown word. This is necessary because there may be several dictionary entries for one word as different parts of speech. • Look at the words that are used with it. If it is a part of a frequent combination of words, the definition may be listed separately. For example, you will find separately numbered definitions for sign up and sign off. The same is true of on sight and sight unseen (both li sted in the dictionary under sight). • Analyze the context for clues to the general meaning of the word. • Think about the topic and the meaning of the sentence in which the word is found. • Look at the definitions listed in the dictionary and choose the most appropriate one—the one that best fits the way the word is used in the sentence. Example: A. Read the sentence, write the part of speech of the underlined word, and choose the most appropriate definition. Follow the guidelines for choosing a dictionary definition. Finally managing to wrench herself free, she turned and stared at him. Part of speech: verb Definitions:to to use your strength to pull yourself away from someone who is holding you 2. to take someone away from somewhere without their permission 3. to twist a joint in your body suddenly and painfully B. What basic meaning do all three definitions of wrench have in common? They all include the idea of a movement that causes pain, either physical or psychological. Inferring Meaning from Context 39 EXERCISE 4 A. Read the sentences, write the part of speech of the underlined word, and choose the most appropriate definition. Follow the guidelines for choosing a dictionary definition. a. No matter how thirsty it is, a horse that has been used to drinking out of a pond or stream will often refuse water from a trough. Part of speech: Definitions: 1. a short period when prices are low, when there is little economic activity 2. a long open container that holds water or food for animals 3. the hollow area between two waves in the ocean or between two hills b. It was their job to buy horses for the army and to scour the countryside for food and supplies. Part of speech: Definitions: 1. to search an area very carefully and thoroughly 2. to clean something very thoroughly by rubbing it with a rough material 3. to form a hole by continuous movement over a long period B. Compare your answers with those of another student. Work together and answer the following questions. a. What basic meaning do the three definitions of trough have in common? b. What basic meaning do the three definitions of scour have in common? EXERCISE 5 A. Read each sentence and choose the most appropriate definition of the underlined word. a. To make the perfect crepe, put some butter in the pan and tilt it in every direction so the butter covers the bottom. b. She ran full tilt out the back door, never noticing the car parked at the side. c. With the new evidence, public opinion was tilted once again, this time in favor of the suspect. d. In Leonardo da Vinci's famous portrait Mona Lisa, the slightly upward tilt of her eyes adds to the mystery of her smile. 40 Vocabulary Building Definitions: 1. v. to move or make something move into a position where one side is higher than the other 2. v. to move your head or chin up or to the side 3. v. to change (as in belief or situation), so that people prefer one person or belief over another 4. n. full tilt—as fast as possible 5. n. a situation in which someone prefers one person or belief, or in which one person or belief has an advantage 6. n. a movement or position in which one side of something is higher than the other B. Compare your answers with those of another student. Then discuss the definitions of tilt. What basic meaning do they have in common? EXERCISE 6 A. Read each sentence and choose the most appropriate definition of the underlined word. a. It was an obvious attempt to shift the blame for the accident onto the other driver. b. Working the night shift can create family problems for both men and women. c. Politicians argued that there was a strong need to shift more resources into education and research. d. The lawyer's sharp questions made the witness shift uncomfortably in his seat. Definitions: 1. v. to move from one place or position to another, or make something do this 2. v. to change the way money is paid or spent 3. v. to make someone else responsible for something, especially for something bad that has happened 4. n. a change in the way people think about something or the way something is done 5. n. one of the periods during each day and night when a particular group of workers in a factory, hospital, etc., are at work 6. n. the key on a computer keyboard that you press to print a capital letter B. Compare your answers with those of another student. Then discuss the definitions of shift. What basic meaning do they have in common? Inferring Meaning from Context 41 Inferring the Meaning of a Word in a Paragraph Beyond the immediate context of the sentence, you can also find clues to the meaning of an unknown word in the larger context of a whole paragraph. In the following exercises you will practice inferring meaning from a whole paragraph, with a nonsense word in the place of a real word. Example: Read the following paragraph and answer the questions about the underlined nonsense word. As the harmful effects of mropping on health have become widely known, many cities and some countries have passed laws that limit where it is allowed. In many places, mropping is no longer permitted in restaurants and bars. Owners of restaurants and bars were against the laws because they believed that their businesses would suffer, but that happened only in the first few months. After that, business returned to normal. The laws have also had another positive effect, apart from making the air cleaner for everyone: More people have given up mropping altogether. a. What part of speech is it? noun b. What words are found around it? effects of mropping, mropping is no longer permitted, more people have given up mropping c. What word or phrase could replace it? smoking EXERCISE 7 A. Working with another student, read the paragraphs and fill in the information about the nonsense words in each paragraph. 1. At the beginning of World War II, when the Germans moved into northern France, they searched the towns and countryside for escaping French soldiers, who were sent to prisoner-of-war camps in Germany. Next, they tried to zep all the guns or other arms they could find, though many people hid theirs on farms or underground. The Germans also took all the horses from farms and towns, because they were needed in the army. This loss really hurt the French, since the lack of gasoline made horses necessary to work the farms and for transport. Not long after this, the Germans zepped radios as well, so that people could not listen to foreign news reports. a. What part of speech is it? b. What words are found around it? c. What word or phrase could replace it? 2. In many countries, there are electronic signs along roads that zop drivers about dangers or problems ahead. These may be short-term dangers, such as an accident or bad weather, or longer-term problems, such as roadwork. Studies have shown, however, that drivers do not always notice these signs. To be sure that drivers are zopped about the condition of the road, the highway management service in Scotland has developed a new electronic system that sends messages directly to special 42 Vocabulary Building electronic systems built into the cars. Do these systems work better to zop drivers than the roadside signs? It is too soon to tell. The results of the first studies will be published next year. a. What part of speech is it? b. What words are found around it? c. What word or phrase could replace it? B. Compare your answers with those of another pair of students. If you disagree, look again at the paragraphs and explain your answers. EXERCISE 8 A. Working with another student, read the paragraphs and fill in the information about the underlined nonsense words. 1. During my stay in the city, I often used to sit on a stone wall by the riverbank in the early evening, hoping for a cool breeze—though there never was one. On one side was the "white" city, on the other side were the African villages, and all day long there were large dreels that went back and forth, bringing people, bicycles, cars, and trucks to and from the city. At this time of day, city workers were eager to get back to their own world on the far side of the river. Brightly dressed and joking, the Africans pushed forward when the dreel arrived. Many were carrying loads on their heads or bicycles on their shoulders. Some were so anxious not to miss the chance to get home that they leaped down the steps and jumped into the dreel as it pulled out. a. What part of speech is it? b. What words are found around it? c. What word or phrase could replace it? 2. The foreign news reporters had been warned not to dress in a way that marked them obviously as foreigners. They were also told not to walk down the middle of the street, where they could be a zeem for enemies on the roofs. They should always stay close to the buildings, ready to run into a doorway if they heard or saw anything suspicious. They should always wear a bulletproof vest. They all did as they had been told, but still did not feel safe. It was impossible not to think of the colleagues who had been wounded and killed in these streets. They walked quickly, looking up at the rooftops. There was no telling when and where a sharpshooter might decide it was time for zeem practice—and they rarely missed their zeem. a. What part of speech is it? b. What words are found around it? c. What word or phrase could replace it? B. Compare your answers with those of another pair of students. If you disagree, look again at the paragraphs and explain your answers. Inferring Meaning from Context 43 Using the Larger Context to Infer Meaning Sometimes you cannot infer the meaning of an unfamiliar word by using just the sentence or paragraph in which it appears. You need to read more of the surrounding text to look for clues to its meaning. Guidelines for Using the Larger Context to Infer Meaning • Determine the part of speech. • Look at the words that are used with it. • Think about the meaning of the sentence and the topic of the passage. • Notice if the word is repeated elsewhere in the passage or if the writer has used any synonyms ( words with the same meaning) or antonyms (opposites). • Look for an explanation or definition of the word somewhere else in the passage (especially in a textbook). • Infer an approximate meaning of the word. • Read the sentence with your meaning instead of the original word. Does it make sense? If not, check steps 1-5 again (or look in a dictionary!). Example: A. Working with another student, read the passage below from Never Cry Wolf by the biologist Farley Mowat. Then answer the questions and infer the meaning of the underlined word. Note: The book describes a summer that Mowat spent in the Canadian Arctic studying wolves. In this passage, he describes three wolves whom he has named George, Albert, and Angeline. One day the wolves killed a caribou' close to overcome all three. Angeline lay at her ease on home and this convenient food supply gave them the rocks overlooking the summer den, while George and Albert rested in sandy beds on the an opportunity to take a holiday. They did not go hunting at all that night, but stayed near the den t through the long morning were occasional and rested. The next morning dawned fine and warm, and a general air of contented ridge. 3 The only signs of life from any of them lassitude seemed to changes of position, and lazy looks about the countryside. ( Source: Farley Mowat, Never Cry Wolf, Boston: Bantam Books, 1963, p. 114) 1 caribou: reindeer den: the home of some types of ridge: a long area of high land 44 animals, for example, wolves Vocabulary Building electronic systems built into the cars. Do these systems work better to zop drivers than the roadside signs? It is too soon to tell. The results of the first studies will be published next year. a. What part of speech is it? b. What words are found around it? c. What word or phrase could replace it? B. Compare your answers with those of another pair of students. If you disagree, look again at the paragraphs and explain your answers. EXERCISE 8 A. Working with another student, read the paragraphs and fill in the information about the underlined nonsense words. 1. During my stay in the city, I often used to sit on a stone wall by the riverbank in the early evening, hoping for a cool breeze-though there never was one. On one side was the "white" city, on the other side were the African villages, and all day long there were large dreels that went back and forth, bringing people, bicycles, cars, and trucks to and from the city. At this time of day, city workers were eager to get back to their own world on the far side of the river. Brightly dressed and joking, the Africans pushed forward when the dreel arrived. Many were carrying loads on their heads or bicycles on their shoulders. Some were so anxious not to miss the chance to get home that they leaped down the steps and jumped into the dreel as it pulled out. a. What part of speech is it? b. What words are found around it? c. What word or phrase could replace it? 2. The foreign news reporters had been warned not to dress in a way that marked them obviously as foreigners. They were also told not to walk down the middle of the street, where they could be a zeem for enemies on the roofs. They