Main Practical Indonesian Phrasebook
You may be interested in Powered by Rec2Me
Published by Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. www.periplus.com Copyright © 1987 APA Publications (HK) Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or by any information storage and retrieval system, without prior written permission from the publisher. HAK PENGARANG DILINDUNGI UNDANG-UNDANG ISBN 978-1-4629-0272-9 Distributed by: North America, Latin America & Europe Tuttle Publishing 364 Innovation Drive North Clarendon, VT 05759-9436 U.S.A. Tel: 1 (802) 773-8930; Fax: 1 (802) 773-6993 email@example.com www.tuttlepublishing.com Asia-Pacific Berkeley Books Pte Ltd 61 Tai Seng Avenue #02-12 Singapore 534167 Tel: (65) 6280-1330; Fax: (65) 6280-6290 firstname.lastname@example.org www.periplus.com Indonesia PT Java Books Indonesia Jl. Rawa Gelam IV No. 9 Kawasan Industri Pulogadung Jakarta 13930 Tel: (62) 21 4682-1088; Fax: (62) 21 461-0206 email@example.com 14 13 12 11 22 21 20 19 18 Printed in Singapore ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: Many thanks to A. Hutagalung and P. Balachandran, who assisted greatly with the Indonesian and Malaysian translations respectively. FOREWORD ______________________ About the language and this book As any seasoned traveler knows, the ability to communicate in the language of the country you are visiting makes a very big difference in the experiences you have. Even a basic grasp of a few essentials will help you to relate to the people, get where you want to go, pay the right prices, and get much more out of your visit. That’s the reason for this book, which is designed especially for travelers to Indonesia and Malaysia. The emphasis is on effective communication, not grammar rules or tourist phrases. It is organized to be as simple, concise, and useful as possible. With this book and a few hours of practice you can start communicating in Indonesian/Malay. The main focus of this book is Indones; ia and Indonesian, simply because here is where the greatest need exists. (In Malaysia English is spoken fairly widely.) At the same time, Indonesian and Malay are in fact regional variations of the same language, so why not kill the proverbial two birds? And making use of your Malay in Malaysia will make your visit there infinitely more rewarding. So, the book itself is written with Indonesia and Bahasa Indonesia in mind. I have marked° the text and included an appendix to make conversion to Malay (where necessary) a painless, easy step. If you pass from Indonesia into Malaysia, or vice versa, just refer to this appendix and to the glossary. Using this book: Begin by going over the pronunciation and grammar guides briefly, returning to them as needed. Then on to the basics: greetings, time and numbers. The rest of the book offers sections dealing with situations and activities you’ll be part of. The three special sections are designed for easy reference to especially useful information. A glossary and the Malay appendix complete the guide. Good luck and good traveling. Selamat jalan! CONTENTS ______________________ FOREWORD About the language and this book PRONUNCIATION GUIDE GRAMMAR GUIDE Comparison with English, verb tenses, pronouns & possessives, forms of address STATEMENTS & QUESTIONS NUMBERS TIME GREETINGS & CIVILITIES SIMPLE WORDS & SENTENCES: I SIMPLE WORDS & SENTENCES: II GETTING AROUND PUBLIC TRANSPORT ASKING DIRECTIONS PLACES FOOD & DRINK BARGAINING SHOPPING AT THE HOTEL AT THE POST OFFICE HEALTH AT THE BANK BUSINESS/SENDING GOODS SWIMMING & EXPLORING SMALL TALK EXPRESSIONS FILLING OUT FORMS GLOSSARY APPENDIX: MALAY EQUIVALENTS APPENDIX: BODY LANGUAGE PRONUNCIATION GUIDE ______________________ Proper pronounciation is important. Often a word that is slightly mispronounced is just not understood. If possible we suggest you go over this section (and other words in the book) with a native speaker. Try to imitate his or her pronounciation as closely as you can. Sentence stress As in English, the most important word in a sentence is stressed. Unlike English, the most important word is often placed first. The rhythm tends to be staccato. Syllable stress As a rule the second to last syllable is stressed: BU-ku (book), sau-DA-ra (you). Exception: If the second to last syllable contains an ‘e’, stress is on the last syllable: per-GI (go), be-LUM (not yet). Vowel sounds a like a in father: dekat/near, apa/what, bisa/can e is pronounced three different ways: 1) like unstressed e (schwa): pelan/slow 2) like é in passé: sore/afternoon 3) like è in bet or ten: teh/tea i usually like i in Bali: hari/day, lihat/see, ibu/mother. But when enclosed by consonants, like i in sit: minta/request, pintu/door o Like o in no: sore/afternoon, nomor/number, toko/shop: u like ou in you: satu/one, duduk/sit ai like i in line: kain:/cloth, baik/good, pantai/beach au like ow in how: atau/or, kalau/if Consonant sounds In general, the pronounciation of consonants is the same as in English. Here are the exceptions: c always like ch in chair: cinta/ to love, cuci/to wash g always hard like g in garden: tiga/three, gila/crazy h 1) at the beginning of a word, is very soft: habis/finish, haus/thirsty 2) between like vowels, is very strong: mahal/expensive, pohon/tree 3) between different vowels, is very soft: lihat/to see, tahun/year 4) at the end of a word, is very soft: sudah/already, teh/tea k 1) at the beginning or middle of a word, like k in kiss: kunci/key, buku/book 2) at end of word is “glottal stop”, not fully pronounced: tidak/no, rokok/cigarette r like a Spanish r, rolled: kamar/room, ramai/crowded ng soft, like ng in singer: mengerti/to understand ngg hard, like ng in single: tinggal/to stay ny like ny in lanyard: banyak/many, much; nyonya/Mrs. kh like k but harder: khabar/news Note on spelling In 1972 certain changes were made to standardize Indonesian and Malay spellings: Old spelling New spelling tj c j y dj j ch kh You still see a variety of different spellings, however, on signs and forms. GRAMMAR GUIDE ______________________ For purposes of basic communication Indonesian grammar is much easier than that of English. Unlike English, Indonesian has NO: 1. Articles. The words: the, a, an have no equivalents and are often omitted. I don’t have a room = Saya tidak ada kamar = I don’t have room; They enter the room = Mereka masuk kamar = They enter room. 2. Verb “to be.” The copula “to be” is not usually translated: This book is good = Buku ini baik = This book good; They are nice = Mereka baik = They nice. 3. Plural form. Sometimes a noun is repeated to form the plural (buku-buku/books), but as a rule the singular form expresses both one or many. Plurality is indicated by the context or by words like: all/semua, many/banyak, etc. Note: Often a doubled word has a different meaning from the word alone: mata = eye but mata-mata = spy. 4. Comparatives (-er, -est). The words more/lebih and most/paling are used before adjectives: good, better, best = baik, lebih baik, paling baik; cheap, cheaper, cheapest = murah, lebih murah, paling murah. 5. Verb tenses. Indonesian verbs are not conjugated. Will go, going, went and gone all translate as pergi. Past, continuous, perfect and future tenses are indicated by the sentence context, or by such words as yesterday, already, later, will, etc. Here are some examples: Past kemarin/yesterday Yesterday I went to Ubud. = Kemarin saya pergi ke Ubud. yang lalu/ago I came two hours ago. = Saya datang dua jam yang lalu. Perfect sudah/already He has gone. = He already go. = Dia sudah pergi. Future akan/will (shall) When will she come? mau/will (want to) = Kapan dia akan datang or Kapan dia mau datang? besok/tomorrow Tomorrow we will see. = Tomorrow we see. = Besok kita lihat. Note on prefixes/suffixes. In Indonesian, new forms are derived from root words by adding prefixes (me-, per-, ber-, di-, ter-) and suffixes (-i, -an, -kan). The rules for these are complex and confusing. Fortunately, for basic communication you can just use the root word (as do many Indonesians in everyday conversation). PERSONAL PRONOUNS I saya, aku (saya is more common) we kita (including the person addressed) kami (excluding the person addressed you anda, saudara (polite forms for general use) kamu (use only with friends and children) he/she dia they mereka Note: see also the Forms of Address section, next page. POSSESSIVES Just place the appropriate pronoun right after any noun to express possession. You can also use endings for my, your and his/her, as shown: my house rumah saya or rumahku (-ku = my) our car mobil kita (inclusive) mobil kami (exclusive) your name nama kamu (informal) nama saudara (more polite) namamu (-mu = your) his/her ticket karcis dia or karcisnya (-nya = his/her) their money uang mereka Grammar note: It and its. There is no direct translation for these. In some cases the word ‘it’ is omitted; often it is expressed as “this” or “that” (ini or itu), or sometimes the -nya ending is used. In the examples we employ the different terms as appropriate, but as a rule you can just keep repeating the noun or use this/ini or that/itu if the object is understood. FORMS OF ADDRESS All in the Family: In Indonesian, family terms are commonly applied to everyone. The word “bapak” (father) is used as “Mr” and “ibu” (mother) as “Mrs” when addressing older people. Younger people are referred to as “brother” or “sister.” Father Bapak (“Pak”) Mother Ibu (“Bu”) Elder brother Abang (“Bang” or “Bung”) or Mas (in Java only) Elder sibling Kakak (“Kak”) Younger brother or sister Adik (“Dik”) OTHER TERMS USED Tuan for a highly respected foreigner Nona° Miss, an unmarried woman Nyonya° Mrs, married woman of high standing Professional titles, such as doctor/dokter, professor, etc. — as in English. ________________________________ NOTE: ° indicates different Malay usage — refer to the appendix at the back. ________________________________ Notes on usage: 1. In most situations, it is better to use “family” forms of address or a person’s proper name instead of the pronoun “you.” For example, if you are speaking to an older woman: Where are you going? = Where is mother (ibu) going? = Ibu pergi ke mana? This style of address is more polite and therefore preferred. 2. The pronoun kamu for “you” is reserved to address close friends or social inferiors. The word anda is more neutral, and has recently become popular. Saudara, literally “brother (or sister)” is also used as a polite form of “you” to address people who are about the same age. 3. The terms Bu, Pak, Nona and Nyonya are very often used in conjunction with first names: Bu Purwo, Pak Prawoto, etc. The same applies to titles. STATEMENTS & QUESTIONS ______________________ WORD ORDER The same as in English: subject-verb-object. As a rule, however, the main (most important) word comes first, the rest follows. As you’ll see, sentences tend to be short, since many parts of speech used in English can be omitted and dependent clauses are not commonly found. Adjectives directly follow the noun they modify: expensive batik batik mahal big store toko besar Exceptions are the adjectives all, many, few: all semua All losmen are cheap. Semua losmen murah. many/much banyak many friends banyak teman few/a little sedikit a little money sedikit uang Questions There are three ways to form questions: 1. Rising voice inflection only: You are going now? Saudara pergi sekarang? 2. Apakah at the beginning of the sentence: Are you hungry? Apakah saudara lapar? 3. Use a question word: Why? Kenapa? Why am I here? Kenapa saya ada disni? How? Bagaimana? How can I go there? Bagaimana saya bisa ke sana? How much/many? Berapa How much (long) time ? Berapa lama? How much (price) is this? Berapa harga ini? Note: What time is it? = “How many hours now?” Jam berapa sekarang? What? Apa? What is this? Apa ini? Where? Mana? Where is it? Mana itu? Where are they going? Mereka ke mana? Who? Siapa? Who’s that? Siapa itu? Note: What’s your name? = “Who is your name?” Siapa nama saudara? When? Kapan°? When did he go? Kapan dia pergi? Requests May Boleh May I enter? Boleh saya masuk? Please give me Minta Please give me some drinking water. Minta air minum. NUMBERS ______________________ 1 satu 6 enam teen = belas 2 dua 7 tujuh 11 sebelas 3 tiga 8 delapam 12 dua belas 4 empat 9 sembilan 13 tiga belas etc. 5 lima 10 sepuluh tens = puluh 20 dua puluh 50 lima puluh 30 tiga puluh 60 enam puluh 31 tiga puluh satu (3-10-1) 70 tujuh puluh 32 tiga puluh dua (3-10-2) 80 delapan puluh 40 empat puluh 90 sembilan puluh hundreds = ratus thousands = ribu 100 seratus 1 000 seribu 200 dua ratus 2 000 dua ribu 300 tiga ratus 10 000 sepuluh ribu etc. 100 000 seratus ribu etc. million = juta 1 000 000 satu juta 2 000 000 dua juta, etc. ½ setengah first pertama ¼ seperempat second kedua ¾ tiga per empat third ketiga 1½ satu setengah fourth keempat etc. USEFUL WORDS number nomor total quantity jumlah plus tambah minus kurang approximately kira-kira how many/much berapa many/much banyak few/a little sedikit enough cukup more (quantity) lagi too terlalu too many terlalu banyak too little terlalu sedikit TIME ______________________ vocabulary minute menit today hari ini hour jam° (also: tomorrow besok “clock, watch”) yesterday kemarin° week minggu now sekarang month bulan in a moment sebentar (also “moon”) later nanti year tahun earlier tadi date tanggal ago yang lalu just now baru saja Time of day Days of the week pagi-pagi 5-7 am Sunday Hari Minggu pagi 7-11 am Monday Hari Senen siang 11 am-3 pm Tuesday Hari Selasa sore° 3-7 pm Wednesday Hari Rabu malam night Thursday Hari Kamis (dark hours) Friday Hari Jum’at Saturday Hari Sabtu Telling time What time is it? Jam berapa?° (It’s) 9 o’clock. Jam sembilan.° (It’s) 7:30. Jam setengah delapan.° (= half eight) (It’s) 2:45. Jam tiga kurang seperempat.° (= three less a quarter) (It’s) 8:10. Jam delapan lewat sepuluh. (= ten past eight) (It’s) “rubber time”! Jam karet! (Good for a laugh when you are late.) Note: What time is it? Jam berapa? How many hours? Berapa jam? useful phrases What day is it now? Hari apa sekarang? Monday. Hari Senen. What’s the date today? Tanggal berapa hari ini? It’s January 1. Tanggal 1 Januari. When did you arrive? Kapan saudara datang? I just arrived. Saya baru saja datang. Earlier this morning Tadi pagi. Three days ago Tiga hari yang lalu. When are you leaving? Kapan saudara berangkat? Later this afternoon. Nanti sore. Tomorrow afternoon. Besok sore. In a little while. Sebentar lagi. Note: time (in a general sense) waktu time (length of) lama times (e.g. many times) kali GREETINGS & CIVILITIES ______________________ “Hello” and “Goodbye” The English words “hello” and “bye-bye” are now also used in Indonesian, but the traditional greetings are: Selamat datang Welcome Selamat pagi Good morning Selamat siang Good midday Selamat sore Good afternoon Selamat malam Goodnight Selamat tidur Have a good sleep Selamat jalan Goodbye (“good journey,” said to someone leaving) Selamat tinggal Goodbye (“good stay,” said to someone staying) Note: Selamat is a word of Arabic origin that literally means “May your time/action be blessed.” “How are you” / “I’m fine” Apa khabar? How are you? (lit: “What’s the news?”) Khabar baik Fine. (lit: “The news is fine.”) “Please” There are different ways to translate the word “please” in Indonesian and foreigners very often confuse them: 1) Minta Literally “to ask for;” used when ordering something. Minta taxi. A taxi, please. 2) Tolong Literally “to help;” used when asking for assistance. Tolong kasih tahu saya. Please let me know. 3) Coba Literally “to try;” used in the sense of “please let me” [have a look, etc.]. Coba lihat itu. Please let me see that. 4) Mari An invitational, meaning: “let’s go, please go ahead.” Mari, makan. Let’s eat. Mari, duduk. Please sit down. 5) Silahkan Similar to mari, meaning “go ahead,” often used in response to a request. Boleh saya duduk? May I sit down? Silahkan. Please, go ahead. “Thank you” / “You’re welcome” Terima kasih Thank you. Kembali You’re welcome (lit: “return”) Sama-sama You’re welcome (lit: “same to you”) “Excuse me” Ma’af Excuse me (“I’m sorry, pardon me”). Permisi Excuse me (used when taking one’sleave, but not on a trip). SIMPLE WORDS & SENTENCES: I ______________________ and dan this/these ini or atau that/those itu with dengan more lebih for untuk less kurang good bagus better lebih baik nice, fine baik bad/worse kurang baik yes ya very sekali no, not tidak different lain not bukan* same sama *Note: tidak is used with verbs, adjectives, adverbs. bukan is used with nouns and pronouns. to be, have ada can, be able bisa° to own punya to get dapat to like suka to know tahu to want mau to take ambil to need perlu to see lihat to buy beli to sell jual Are there (any) rooms? Ada kamar? Sorry, there aren’t (any). Ma’af, tidak ada. What (do you) want? Mau apa? I need that. Saya perlu itu. I want to buy this. Saya mau beli ini. I need two more. Saya perlu dua lagi. (Is) this good or not? Ini bagus tidak? Those (are) not so good. Itu kurang bagus. These (are) very good. Ini bagus sekali. Yes, but these (are) better. Ya, tetapi ini lebih bagus. Not that (one)! Bukan itu! (Is it) the same or different? Ini sama atau lain? I don’t know. Saya tidak tahu. May I take one? Boleh saya ambil satu? Please, take two. Mari, ambil dua. (or) Silahkan ambil dua. (Do you) want to go with him? Mau pergi sama dia? No, (I) don’t want (to). Tidak mau. Can (you) see (it)? Bisa lihat? Yes, (I) can. Ya, bisa. Who is this for? Ini untuk siapa? (or) Untuk siapa, ini? I like it. Saya suka itu. Note: Words in parentheses ( ) are not used in the Indo-nesian translation. SIMPLE WORDS & SENTENCES: II ______________________ if kalau, jika to speak bicara° but tetapi to tell bilang° then lalu, kemudian to ask tanya only hanya, saja to understand mengerti correct betul to go pergi wrong salah to wait tunggu from dari to give kasih big besar already sudah small kecil not yet belum beautiful cantik old tua, lama slow(ly) pelan(-pelan) new baru fast cepat the one which yang* *Note: Yang is a relative pronoun with many uses: yang kecil = the small one yang ini = this one yang mana? = which one? bis° yang baru = the new bus gadis yang cantik = the beautiful girl I don’t understand. Saya tidak mengerti. I can’t speak Indonesian. Saya tidak bisa bicara Bahasa Indonesia. Please speak slowly. Tolong bicara pelan-pelan. Wait, I will ask. Tunggu, saya akan tanya. Please tell me. Tolong bilang kepada saya. Please give me that. Tolong kasih saya itu. (Is) this new or old? Ini baru atau lama? Where is this from? Ini dari mana? This bus (is) small, but Bis° ini kecil, tetapi that one (is) big. yang itu besar. Which one do you want? Anda mau yang mana? I only want this one. Saya hanya mau yang ini. (or) Saya mau yang ini saja. I want the new one. Saya mau yang baru. ( = I want the one which [is] new.) (Is) that right or not? Itu betul tidak? No, that (is) wrong. Tidak, itu salah. How many (do you) Sudah punya berapa? already have? Not (yet) enough. Belum cukup. I (shall) wait 10 minutes, Saya tunggu sepuluh menit, then I shall go lalu saya akan pergi. Have you eaten yet? Sudah makan, belum? Yes, I have. Sudah. No, not yet. Belum. GETTING AROUND ______________________ at di to stay tinggal to ke to go pergi from dari to stop berhenti where mana to come, arrive datang here sini to depart berangkat there sana to return kembali near dekat to walk berjalan, far jauh jalan kaki over there di situ by (means of) naik via lewat place tempat road, way jalan bicycle sepeda° alley gang motorcycle sepeda motor° car mobil° rent, hire sewa Where is he? Di mana dia? Far from here. Jauh dari sini. (It) is there. Ada di sana. Where (are you) going? Pergi ke mana? (or) Mau ke mana?* I am going to Bali. Saya pergi ke Bali. Where (have you come) from? Dari mana? I have just come from Jakarta. Saya baru datang dari Jakarta. Where (are you) staying? Tinggal di mana? Over there. In a hotel. Di situ. Di hotel. How (did you) come? Datang naik apa? By car. Naik mobil. By motorcycle. Naik sepeda motor. How will you go? Mau pergi naik apa? If (it’s) close, I’ll walk. Kalau dekat, saya jalan kaki. Stop here. Berhenti di sini. I came yesterday. Saya datang kemarin. I depart tomorrow. Saya berangkat besok. I will return later. Saya akan kembali nanti. *Note: the word mau (to want) is often used in place of pergi (to go): I go to Bali = Saya mau ke Bali. PUBLIC TRANSPORT ______________________ terminal terminal seat tempat (duduk) station setasiun° direct langsung ticket karcis° express expres ticket agent agen window loket° fast cepat airport airport, slow(-ly) pelan(-pelan) bandar udara full penuh airplane pesawat empty kosong ship kapal laut crowded ramai train kereta api still masih bus bis° class kelas night bus bis malam comfortable, taxi taksi nice enak pedicab becak cancel batal° Where can (I) buy a Di mana (saya) bisa beli bus/train ticket? karcis bis/kereta api? At the train station. Di setasiun kereta api. At the bus terminal. Di terminal bis. Where is the bus agent? Di mana agen bis? Are there still seats? Masih ada tempat (duduk)? Sorry, already full. Ma’af, sudah penuh. Where is the ticket Di mana loketnya? window? I want to buy a ticket to Saya mau beli karcis ke Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta. How much for 2nd class? Berapa untuk kelas dua? How long does it take to Berapa lama (naik bis) get there (by bus)? ke sana? Does it go directly to Bis ini pergi langsung Yogya (or not)? ke Yogya, bukan? Does (it) have air- Pakai AC tidak? conditioning? What time does the Jam berapa bis malam night bus depart? berangkat? Where do we board? Naik dari mana? Can we board here? Bisa naik di sini? I want to cancel this Saya mau batal karcis ticket. ini. Please return my money. Tolong kembali uang saya. Is this an express train? Ini kereta api expres, bukan? Is this bus fast or slow? Bis ini cepat atau pelan? Taxi! To the airport! Taksi! Ke airport! Please go fast. Tolong pergi cepat. Where is the Merpati agent? Di mana agen Merpati? What day does the boat Hari apa kapal laut leave for Singapore? berangkat ke Singapura? Probably on Monday. Barangkali hari Senen. Travel Notes and Tips: 1. Indonesians speak of a bus terminal but a train station. 2. Train tickets have to be bought at the station, but bus tickets can be bought from an agent. 3. Bus terminals are usually far out of town, but buses can often be boarded at the agent’s office. Ask first. 4. Night buses are express, most day buses are local. 5. Bemos are minibuses used on local routes. In some places there are intercity minibuses used for intermediate distances (e.g. Yogya—Solo), called travel. 6. Most comfortable spot on a bus or minibus is in the middle (di tengah), but not over a wheel. 7. Trains have dining cars or you can buy food at the station. Buses stop periodically for meals and calls of nature. Bring your own food on most boats. 8. Don’t be in a hurry—no one else is. asking directions north utara inside di dalam south selatan outside di luar east timur in front of di muka/depan west barat in back of di belakang before sebelum right kanan after sesudah left kiri next to di sebelah turn belok far jauh near dekat ASKING DIRECTIONS ______________________ address alamat to look for cari enter masuk exit, go out keluar road, street jalan main road jalan raya lane, alley gang expressway jalan tol Excuse me, Pak. Ma’af Pak. Where is Hotel Trio? Di mana Hotel Trio? Is it nearby? Dekat dari sini, tidak? Yes, (it is) near. Ya, dekat. How far is it? Berapa jauh dari sini? About two kilometers Kira-kira dua kilometer. What (are you) looking for? Cari apa? I am looking for this address. Saya cari alamat ini. It’s there [pointing]. Di sana. How many meters Berapa meter dari sini? from here? About 200 meters. Kira-kira dua ratus meter. Is it on the main road? Ada di jalan raya? No, it is down a lane. Bukan, harus masuk gang. Go straight, then turn Jalan terus, lalu belok left at the main street. kiri di jalan raya. Go south, then east Pergi ke selatan, lalu ke timur. Enter the alley on the Masuk gang di sebelah right. kanan. (Is it) in front or in back (Ada) di muka atau di of the house? belakang rumah? It’s in front. Ada di muka. It’s outside. Ada di luar. It’s to the left. Ada di sebelah kiri. Thank you, ma’am. Terima kasih, bu. You’re welcome. Kembali. Note: When asking directions, it’s better not to use yes/ no questions because people will often answer yes or no without having understood the question. Instead, ask “Where is—?” If it’s an obscure place, keep asking as you go along and eventually you’ll get there. PLACES Geography world dunia mountain gunung island pulau volcano gunung api lake danau summit, peak puncak beach pantai sea laut river sungai, kali forest hutan country negara territory daerah PLACES ______________________ Tourist sites Obyek wisata park taman, kebun nature reserve cagar alam waterfall air terjun hot spring mata air panas temple candi zoo kebun binatang swimming pool kolam renang palace keraton museum musium In the city Dalam kota city kota besar° hospital rumah sakit town kota° market pasar village desa bank bank downtown pusat kota mosque mesjid store toko hotel hotel cinema bioskop° lodge losmen university universitas guesthouse wisma church gereja restaurant rumah makan immigration office kantor immigrasi tourism office kantor pariwisata° embassy kedutaan besar, kedubes Around the house Di rumah house rumah room kamar sleep tidur bedroom kamar tidur° bath mandi bathroom kamar mandi kitchen dapur toilet kamar kecil, WC FOOD AND DRINK ______________________ Useful words to eat makan restaurant restoran, rumah makan food makanan to drink minum menu daftar makanan drink minuman tasty, nice enak waiter pelayan delicious sedap plate piring glass gelas breakfast makan pagi cup cangkir lunch makan siang knife pisau dinner makan malam fork garpu spoon sendok Fruits buah-buahan mango mangga pineapple nanas durian durian citrus jeruk jackfruit nangka mangosteen manggis coconut kelapa apple apel papaya pepaya banana pisang strawberry arbai, arben watermelon semangka Meat daging beef daging sapi° chicken daging ayam pork daging babi duck daging bebek° lamb domba° pigeon burung dara goat, liver hati mutton kambing brains otak heart jantung Seafood ocean fish ikan laut lake fish ikan danau lobster udang karang squid cumi-cumi oysters tiram crab kepiting° shrimp, prawns udang For vegetarians without meat tanpa° daging only vegetables sayur saja Staples Snacks jajan rice nasi cake kue noodles mie, bihun, candy, permen, bakmi (sweets) gula-gula bread roti peanuts kacang Condiments/flavor hot/warm panas chili lombok, cabe° hot/spicy pedas salt garam cold dingin° pepper merica, lada sweet manis soya sauce kecap sour asam butter mentega salty asin° honey madu Prepared dishes There are many local dishes in Indonesia, with a great deal of regional variation. Here is a brief listing of some common ones. C = Chinese origin; M = Middle Eastern. nasi putih steamed white rice nasi goreng fried rice, sometimes with vegetable, egg and meat nasi rames plate of rice with side dishes, including vegetable and meat mie goreng fried noodles, sometimes with vegetables mie noodles mie kuah served in stock, with vegetables soto, sop soup, often spicy with meat sate broiled meat on skewers, with peanut sauce gulai (M) meat in curry broth martabak meat/onion pancake, fried cap cay (C) stir fried vegetables and meat fu yong hai (C) vegetable and meat omelette pangsit (C) wonton dumplings bakso (C) meatballs (usually beef) gado-gado veg. salad with peanut sauce telur egg — rebus — boiled — goreng — fried (both sides) — mata sapi — “sunny side up” (lit: “cow’s eye”) Drinks hot panas° ginger tea jahe cold dingin° chocolate coklat ice es° sweet manis bottle botol bitter pahit water air only a little sedikit saja boiled water air putih sugar gula milk susu without sugar tanpa° gula coffee kopi beer bir tea teh cordial strop soft drinks (by brand name): Coca Cola, Fanta, etc.) Blended fruit drinks es jus + fruit name Other fruit drinks es jeruk iced lemon/orange juice, sweetened es kelapa iced coconut milk es kelapa iced young coconut milk + muda ‘meat’ and sugar syrup es kopior iced overripe coconut milk +‘meat’ and sugar syrup es buah jelly-like fruits and syrup on ice served in a bowl es kacang shaved ice with sugar syrup over a bowl of beans and jellies ronde a spicy hot drink served in a bowl at some warungs BARGAINING ______________________ Buying and bargaining in Indonesian can be fun or it can be tremendously frustrating, depending largely on your attitude. There are three “buying situations” here: 1. Fixed Prices: Sometimes the prices are really fixed, meaning no reductions. This is usually the case in medium and large hotels, restaurants, department and other large stores. If you see the price posted, that’s usually it. 2. Polite Wrangling: This applies anytime you’re making a major purchase in a medium size or smaller store, even if the price is posted or you see a “Harga Pas” sign. Always ask for a reduction if you are buying something big. Indonesians do. For major purchases you should take your time, chat with the shopkeepers and be friendly. Usually you will get 10% off at the very least. Sometimes you’ll get much more than that. Never act overly eager or in a rush to buy! Keep pointing out the (real or imagined) defects of the thing you are buying. 3. Bargaining: This applies to markets, beach or street vendors of tourist items, pedicabs (becaks), Sumatran buses (usually), souvenir shops and anyone who quotes you an outrageous price for something. This is more of an open contest, but remember it’s a game you’ll win by strategy, not by anger or intimidation. Always keep your cool. Here are some winning strategies: A. Know the right price (harga pas) before you buy. How? Compare prices first and learn about the different qualities of goods. And ask an Indonesian who is unconnected with the goods or services being offered. Indonesians are always exchanging price information so they don’t pay too much. They will be happy to tell you. B. Make the first bid. If you know the right price, or have a good idea, make a first bid that is lower than the correct price rather than asking the price. This gets you off to a more realistic start, as the seller then knows that you know how much it should cost. C. The walk away. A must with becaks. Anytime you think you’ve offered a good price, just smile, shrug your shoulders, and walk away slowly, repeating the price. Often the seller will call you back, agreeing to your offer. Once the seller has agreed, you must buy. It is very bad to renege and the seller may rightfully get very angry. So never make an offer you don’t intend to go through with, no matter how low it may seem! D. Use your Indonesian! The more fluent you are, the easier bargaining becomes. E. Always keep smiling! Never get angry or act insulted by a high price. This gets you nowhere. There is no concept of a ‘right’ price or ‘overcharging’ in Indonesia. If you paid too much, it’s your own fault. SHOPPING ______________________ Useful words to buy beli cheap murah to sell jual expensive mahal to bargain tawar too much terlalu banyak to lose money rugi price harga less, reduce kurang quality kwalitet° kind, type macam cost ongkos color warna money uang buy a lot borong shop toko market pasar ‘usual’ price harga biasa fixed price, net price harga pas ‘just looking’ lihat-lihat saja How much (is the price)? Berapa (harganya)? BUYING FRUIT AT THE MARKET F = foreigner, IB = Indonesian bystander, S = seller F: Excuse me, Sir. Ma’af, Pak. Berapa What is the usual price of that fruit? (pointing) harga biasa buah itu? IB: About Rp 2.000 per kilo. Kira-kira dua ribu rupiah per kilo. F: (walks over) Selamat pagi, Bu. Good morning, Bu. I want to buy a kilo of this fruit for Rp 1.600. rupiah. Saya mau beli satu kilo buah ini untuk seribu enam ratus S: No can. I lose. Price of this is Rp 3.000 per kilo. Tak bisa. Saya rugi. Harga ini tiga ribu rupiah se kilo (se = satu). F: (smile!) Too expensive. Rp 2.000 is the usual price. Terlalu mahal. Harga biasa dua ribu. S: Yes, okay. Ya, boleh. IN A STORE F: What’s the price of this? Berapa harga ini? S: That’s Rp 50.000, sir. Itu lima puluh ribu rupiah, tuan. F: That’s expensive! Mahal! Can you reduce it? Bisa kurang? S: Yes, a little. Bisa, sedikit. F: Do you have many kinds? Ada banyak macam? S: Yes, and many qualities. Ya, dan banyak kwalitet. F: May I see? Boleh saya lihat? S: This color is nice. Warna ini bagus. F: Can (you) reduce the price if I buy two? Bisa kurang kalau saya beli dua? S: Sorry, it’s a fixed price. Ma’af. Itu harga pas. F: Today I’m just looking; maybe I’ll come back tomorrow. Hari ini saya lihat-lihat saja; mungkin saya kembali besok. Things to buy jewelry intan permata silver perak gold mas wood kayu leather kulit bone tulang horn tanduk ivory gading masks topeng paintings lukisan woodcarvings ukiran kayu tablecloths taplak meja° bedspreads seperai° bags tas° fabric kain wayang puppets wayang kulit leather goods barang kulit clothing pakaian long cloth (2 meters) kain panjang sarong-length cloth kain sarung blouse, shirt kemeja T-shirt kaus dress, skirt rok handdrawn batik batik tulis copper-stamped batik batik cap print (not batik) sablon A few more terms and phrases to try on mencoba May I try on this dress? Boleh saya mencoba rok ini? factory pabrik to make bikin, membuat Which place makes Tempat yang mana hand-drawn batik? membuat batik tulis? made dibuat Where are these goods made? Barang-barang ini dibuat di mana? AT THE HOTEL ______________________ room kamar° empty kosong full penuh follow ikut blanket selimut sheet seperai° pillow bantal to deposit titip to wash (clothes) mencuci to clean bikin bersih to spray semprot° mosquito nyamuk key, lock kunci receptionist resepsionis Still have an empty room? Masih ada kamar kosong? For one or two persons, sir? Untuk satu atau dua orang, tuan? Two people. Dua orang. Yes, there is. Ya, ada. May I see (it)? Boleh saya lihat? Yes, please follow me. Ya, silakan ikut saya. This is fine. Ini boleh. How much for one night? Berapa untuk satu malam? May I deposit my passport with you? Boleh saya titip paspor saya dengan anda? Is there someone who washes clothes? Ada orang yang mencuci pakaian? Please spray my room. Tolong semprot kamar saya. There are some mosquitoes inside. Ada nyamuk di dalam. Please clean my room. Tolong bikin bersih kamar saya. I’m leaving tomorrow midday. Saya berangkat besok siang. Goodbye. (to person leaving) Selamat jalan. Goodbye. (to person staying) Selamat tinggal. AT THE POST OFFICE ______________________ post office kantor pos° postcard kartu pos central pusat send kirim branch cabang package paket airmail pos udara stamp perangko letter surat register tercatat° aerogram aerogramme telegram kawat ekspres — express service for international airmail. kilat — express service within Indonesia kilat khusus — special registered delivery within Indonesia I want to send this letter to England. Saya mau kirim surat ini ke negeri Inggeris. (Do you) want to send it airmail? Mau kirim pos udara? Yes, and express. Ya, dan ekspres. Rp 1.500. Seribu lima ratus rupiah. Thank you. Terima kasih. You’re welcome. Kembali. I want to pick up (take) a registered letter. Saya mau ambil surat tercatat. I want to send this letter by kilat khusus to Jakarta. Saya mau kirim surat ini kilat khusus ke Jakarta. The cost is Rp 3.000. Ongkosnya tiga ribu rupiah. Where is the telegram office? Di mana kantor telegram? Next door. Di sebelah. Helpful tips: Express service costs extra and usually saves 1-2 days. Register anything of value. If possible, watch the stamps being cancelled. Telegrams sent to points within Indonesia are very cheap and fast. HEALTH ______________________ healthy sehat sick sakit doctor dokter hospital rumah sakit medicine, drug obat pharmacy apotik° diarrhea berak-berak flu flu°, pilek to call panggil broken leg kaki patah broken arm lengan patah to bring bawa cold masuk angin to vomit muntah fever demam cholera kolera infection infeksi malaria malaria injection suntik I’m sick. Is there a doctor near here? Saya sakit. Ada dokter di dekat sini? Where is the best hospital? Di mana rumah sakit yang paling baik. Please buy medicine for Tolong beli obat untuk me at the pharmacy. saya di apotik. I need medicine for diarrhea. Saya perlu obat untuk berak-berak. I’m sick (with) flu. Saya sakit flu. Please call a taxi. Tolong panggil taksi. Help! My friend’s leg is broken. Tolong! Kaki teman saya patah. Bring us to a hospital. Bawa kami ke rumah sakit. AT THE BANK ______________________ to exchange tukar traveler’s checks (same) exchange rate kurs dollar dolar° transfer transfer not yet belum to contact hubungi branch office cabang money uang cash uang tunai, uang kontan Excuse me, Miss. Where Ma’af, Nona. Di mana can I exchange bisa saya tukar traveler’s checks? traveler’s checks? I want to exchange Saya mau tukar American dollars. dolar Amerika. What is the rate of Berapa kurs dolar exchange today? hari ini? Rp 2.000 for Dua ribu rupiah untuk one dollar. satu dolar. O.K. I’ll change $50. Baik. Saya mau tukar lima puluh dolar. Is there a transfer for me? Ada transfer untuk saya? My name is Humbert. Nama saya Humbert. I’m sorry, Ma’af, (it) hasn’t arrived yet. belum datang. This transfer is already Transfer ini sudah one week late. terlambat satu minggu. Please contact the Tolong hubungi Jakarta branch cabang Jakarta for me. untuk saya. I’ll return Saya kembali lagi the day after tomorrow. besok lusa. Helpful tip: If someone transfers money to you from abroad, ask them to use an international bank and to mail you a copy of the transfer notice separately. BUSINESS/SENDING GOODS ______________________ business dagang import(er) impor(tir) export(er) expor(tir) supplier supplier, grosir customer langganan wholesale price harga borongan profit untung, laba quantity jumlah piece, unit potong, buah sample contoh to order pesan shipment pengiriman shipping agent ekspedisi to send kirim to pack membungkus package bungkus, paket insurance assuransi Who is the exporter of these goods? Siapa yang jadi exportir barang ini? Where is the best supplier? Di mana supplier yang paling baik? Which supplier is the biggest? Grosir mana yang paling besar? I request the wholesale price for this batik. Saya minta harga borongan untuk batik ini. How many pieces can you make per month? Berapa potong anda bisa membuat per bulan? I need three samples of this type. Saya perlu tiga contoh seperti ini. I want to order 300 pieces. Saya mau pesan tiga ratus potong. I want to send these goods to Australia. Saya mau kirim barang ini ke Australia. Which shipping agent is the best? Expedisi mana yang paling baik? I want to send this shipment in two days. Saya mau kirim pengiriman ini dalam dua hari. Who can pack them for me? Siapa bisa membungkus ini untuk saya? Please make a very strong package. Tolong bikin bungkus yang kuat sekali. Do I need insurance? Apakah saya perlu assuransi? SWIMMING & EXPLORING ______________________ beach pantai beautiful indah (place) cantik (women) also juga wave ombak sand pasir safe aman to swim berenang cave gua hot springs mata air panas waterfall air terjun to climb naik, mendaki summit, top puncak volcano gunung api to reach sampai to the top ke atas This beach (is) very beautiful. Pantai ini indah sekali. That girl (is) also beautiful. Gadis itu juga cantik. I like big waves Saya suka ombak besar and white sand. dan pasir putih. (Is it) safe to swim here? Aman tidak berenang di sini? Yes, but don’t Ya, tetapi jangan swim too far. berenang terlalu jauh. Is there a cave near here? Ada gua dekat sini? There are two near Ada dua dekat the hot spring. mata air panas. Where is the waterfall? Di mana ada air terjun? Half a kilometer Setengah kilometer to the east. ke timur. I want to climb to the top Saya mau naik ke puncak of that volcano. gunung api itu. From where can (one) Dari mana bisa climb up? mendaki? From a village on the Dari desa di sebelah north side. utara. How long does it take to Berapa lama untuk reach the summit? sampai di puncak? SMALL TALK ______________________ to go for a walk jalan-jalan to originate, come from asal (to have) ever (sudah) pernah already sudah married kawin original asli practice latihan to learn belajar foreigner orang asing age umur Hello. What’s your name? Hello. Siapa namanya? Lolita. What’s your name? Lolita. Siapa nama bapak? My name’s Peter. Nama saya Peter. Where are you going? Mau ke mana? Just taking a walk. Jalan-jalan saja. Where (do you) come from? Asal dari mana? Switzerland. Swiss. How long (have you) been here? (=Already how long here?) Sudah berapa lama di sini? One month. Satu bulan. (Are you) already married (or not)? Sudah kawin belum? Yes. Four times. Ya. Empat kali. (Have you) ever been to Bali? Sudah pernah ke Bali? Yes, already. Ya, sudah. May I practice English with you? Boleh saya latihan Bahasa Inggeris dengan anda? O.K. I want to learn Indonesian. Baik. Saya mau belajar Bahasa Indonesia. I’m sorry. Perhaps another time. Ma’af sekali. Mungkin lain waktu. Cultural note: Indonesians have a great love of togetherness and “small talk” (obrol) which often clashes with Western notions of privacy. They are also very curious about foreigners and want to be able to place you by knowing where you are from, what your religion is, whether you are married, how many children you have, how long you are staying, etc. Realize that this is a cultural difference and be diplomatic in not answering questions you consider too personal. Evasiveness is an acceptable way of turning aside questions. EXPRESSIONS ______________________ These three phrases refer to going for a stroll and are good answers to the perennial question: Mau ke mana? (Where are you going?) makan angin “eat wind” cari angin “look for wind” cuci mata “wash eyes” Other phrases : masuk angin “enter wind” to catch a cold main-main “play-play” As in Main-main ke rumah kalau ada waktu = Come play/visit my house when you have the time. aduh! an expression of surprise or pain kepala udang “prawn head” idiot jam karet “rubber time” FILLING OUT FORMS ______________________ Useful words nama name alamat address alamat lengkap complete adress tanggal (tgl) date tanggal lahir date of birth tempat lahir place of birth umur age kebangsaan nationality surat keterangan identification papers nomor paspor passport number maksud kunjungan purpose of visit pekerjaan profession agama religion kawin marital status GLOSSARY ______________________ A about kira-kira after sesudah age umur ago yang lalu airport airport alone sendiri already sudah also juga always selalu and dan answer (v.) jawab art kesenian ask tanya B bargain tawar beautiful indah, cantik belief keper-cayaan believe percaya bicycle sepeda, basikal° big besar book buku bother ganggu bring membawa broken rusak but tetapi buy beli C can bisa, boleh° cancel batal, hapus° call panggil car mobil, kereta° careful hati-hati central pusat cheap murah cheat (v.) menipu city kota, negri° clean bersih clever pintar cloth kain clothes pakaian cold dingin, sejuk° color warna connection hubungan contents isinya continue jalan terus correct betul custom adat D date tanggal day hari deliver sampaikan deposit (v.) titip, simpan° difficult susah dirty kotor discount korting, diskaun° disturb ganggu drink (v.) minum E earlier tadi easy mudah eat makan emergency keadaan darurat empty kosong enter masuk except kecuali expensive mahal extra-ordinary luar biasa F far jauh father bapak, ayah fill mengisi film pilem find mendapat food makanan for untuk full penuh G give memberi go pergi gold mas good baik guest tamu guide perantara H happy senang have punya he dia help tolong, bantu honest jujur hope (n.) harapan (v.) mengharap hospital rumah sakit hot panas hour jam, pukul how bagaimana I I saya if kalau, jika inform beritahu inside didalam interesting menarik into kedalam J jewel permata join menyusul job pekerjaan K key kunci king raja knife pisau know tahu L late terlambat later nanti laugh ketawa lazy malas left (adj.) kiri letter surat license izin lie bohong light (adj.) ringgan like suka lock kunci look for mencari lost hilang loud keras love cinta M many banyak market pasar maybe barangkali minute menit money uang month bulan monument tugu more lagi mother ibu motorcycle sepeda motor must harus N need perlu new baru nice bagus no tidak nonsense omong kosong not yet belum now sekarang O often sering old tua only hanya order (n.) pesanan open buka P pillow bantal place tempat poor miskin possession milik possible mungkin practical praktis practice latihan precise tepat prefer lebih suka present (n.) hadiah price harga private pribadi promise janji prompt cepat pull tarik purpose maksud push dorong Q quality kualitet, kualiti° queen ratu R read membaca refined alus religion agama rent (v.) menyewa repair perbaiki return kembali rich kaya right (direction) kanan road jalan room kamar, bilik° rotten busuk rule (n.) peraturan run lari S same sama see lihat she dia short pendek show (v.) menunjuk sick sakit small kecil song lagu so-so lumayan speak bicara, bercakap° spicy pedas store, toko, shop kedai° strong kuat stupid bodoh sweet manis T take ambil tasty enak, sedap° tell bilang temple pura, candi they mereka that itu this ini today hari ini together bersama toilet kamar kecil tomorrow besok trip (n.) perjalanan true benar try coba type (n.) jenis U under dibawa understand mengerti urgent perlu sekali V value nilai vehicle kendaraan very sekali view (n.) peman- dangan village desa visit (n.) kunjungan volcano gunung api W wait tunggu want mau warm panas we kita, kami weak lemah what apa when kapan, bila° where (at) demana wish ingin who siapa why mengapa wrong salah X, Y, Z year tahun yesterday kemarin, semalam° you saudara, kamu young muda zoo kebun binatang Note: ° indicates Malay APPENDIX: MALAY ______________________ The following section-by-section guide lists differences in usage between Indonesian and Malay. Section English Indonesian° Malay Grammar Miss Nona Saudari Mrs. Nyonya Puan Questions when kapan bila Time hour jam, pukul pukul(only) afternoon sore petang yesterday kemarin semalam 7:30 setengah delapan tujuh setengah 2:45 tiga kurang seperempat dua empat puluh lima minit W & S I can bisa boleh W & S II speak bicara bercakap tell bilang beritahu Getting car mobil kereta Around bicycle sepeda basikal motorcycle sepeda motor motosikal Public station setasiun perhentian Transport ticket karcis tiket ticket window loket tempat tiket bus bis bus cancel batal hapus Places city kota besar negri, bandar town kota pekan office kantor office tourist pariwisata pelancung cinema bioskop panggung room kamar bilik bedroom kamar tidur bilik tidur bathroom kamar mandi bilik mandi toilet kamar kecil tandas store toko kedai pharmacy apotik kedai ubat petrol pompa stesen pump station bensin minyak Food & beef daging sapi daging lembu Drink lamb domba kambing biri-biri duck bebek itek without... tanpa... tidak pakai... crab kepiting ketam cold dingin sejuk salty asin masin chili lombok lada ice es air batu Shopping quality kwalitet jenis bahan bag tas beg tablecloth taplak meja kain meja bedspread seperai kain cadar Hotel room kamar bilik sheet seperai cadar to spray semprot sembur Post post office kantor pos pejabat pos to register tercatat kiriman khas Health flu flu demam kepialu Bank dollar dolar ringgit BODY LANGUAGE ______________________ When you’re smiling — Indonesians are great smilers. You’ll get more smiles on a streetcorner here than on one in any Western city. A smile conveys goodwill, smooths over conflicts, bridges language and culture gaps. It’s also said the Indonesians have a smile for every emotion, so don’t be misled. “Come here” is not conveyed by the crooked index finger — instead the hand is extended palm down and the fingers are waved downward. The left hand is considered unclean. For touching people or receiving or giving things, it’s best to use the right hand. The feet are the lowest part of the body; as a rule it’s very rude to put them up in the air or point them at people when sitting. Aggressive gestures and postures are disdained, including pointing directly at someone, crossing arms over chest, and standing with hands on hips.