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TE AM FL Y The A to Z of Correct English Books to change your life and work. Accessible, easy to read and easy to act on – other titles in the How To series include: Polish Up Your Punctuation & Grammar Master the basics of the English language and write with greater confidence Improving Your Spelling Boost your word power and your confidence Improving Your Written English How to ensure your grammar, punctuation and spelling are up to scratch Writing an Essay How to improve your performance in coursework and examinations Increase Your Word Power How to find the right word when you need it For full details, please send for a free copy of the latest catalogue to: howtobooks 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road, Oxford OX4 1RE, United Kingdom E-mail: email@example.com http://www.howtobooks.co.uk The A to Z of Correct English ANGELA BURT 2nd edition howtobooks Published by How To Books Ltd, 3 Newtec Place, Magdalen Road, Oxford OX4 1RE. United Kingdom. Tel: (01865) 793806. Fax: (01865) 248780. email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.howtobooks.co.uk All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or stored in an information retrieval system (other than for purposes of review) without the express permission of the publisher in writing. # Copyright 2002 Angela Burt First edition 2000 Second edition 2002 Angela Burt has asserted the right to be identiﬁed as the author of this work, in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library. Cover Design by Baseline Arts, Oxford Produced for How To Books by Deer Park Productions Typeset by PDQ Typesetting, Stoke-on-Trent, Staﬀs. Printed and bound by The Cromwell Press, Trowbridge, Wiltshire NOTE: The material contained in this book is set out in good faith for general guidance and no liability can be accepted for loss or expense incurred as a result of relying in particular circumstances on statements made in the book. Laws; and regulations are complex and liable to change, and readers should check the current position with the relevant authorities before making personal arrangements. Introduction The A–Z of Correct English is a reference book which has been written for the student and the general reader. It aims to tackle the basic questions about spelling, punctuation, grammar and word usage that the student and the general reader are likely to ask. Throughout the book there are clear explanations, and exemplar sentences where they are needed. When it’s helpful to draw attention to spelling rules and patterns, these are given so that the reader is further empowered to deal with hundreds of related words. The aim always has been to make the reader more conﬁdent and increasingly self-reliant. This is a fast-track reference book. It is not a dictionary although, like a dictionary, it is arranged alphabetically. It concentrates on problem areas; it anticipates diﬃculties; it invites cross-references. By exploring punctuation, for example, and paragraphing, it goes far beyond a dictionary’s terms of reference. It is not intended to replace a dictionary; it rather supplements it. Once, in an evening class, one of my adult students said, ‘If there’s a right way to spell a word, I want to know it.’ On another occasion, at the end of a punctuation session on possessive apostrophes, a college student said rather angrily, ‘Why wasn’t I told this years ago?’ This book has been written to answer all the questions that my students over the years have needed to ask. I hope all who now use it will have their questions answered also and enjoy the conﬁdence and the mastery that this will bring. Angela Burt v This page intentionally left blank How to use this book For ease of reference, all the entries in this book have been listed alphabetically rather than being divided into separate spelling, usage, punctuation and grammar sections. You will therefore ﬁnd hypocrisy following hyphens; paragraphing following paraﬃn; who or whom? following whiskey or whisky?; and so on. WANT TO CHECK A SPELLING? Cross-referencing will help you locate words with tricky initial letters. aquaint Wrong spelling. See ACQUAINT. Plural words are given alongside singular nouns, with crossreferencing to relevant rules and patterns. knife (singular) knives (plural). See PLURALS (v). There is also a general section on plurals and another on foreign plurals. If it’s the complication of adding an ending that is causing you trouble, you will ﬁnd some words listed with a useful crossreference. dining or dinning? dine + ing = dining (as in dining room) din + ing = dinning (noise dinning in ears) See ADDING ENDINGS (i) and (ii). There are individual entries for confusing endings like -able/-ible; -ance,-ant/-ence,-ent; -cal/-cle; -ise or -ize? and for confusing beginnings like ante-/anti-; for-/fore-; hyper-/hypo-; inter-/intraand many others. vii A abandon abandoned, abandoning, abandonment (not -bb-) abattoir (not -bb-) abbreviate abbreviated, abbreviating, abbreviation (not -b-) abbreviations See -able/-ible Adjectives ending in -able or -ible can be diﬃcult to spell because both endings sound identical. You’ll always need to be on guard with these words and check each word individually when you are in doubt, but here are some useful guidelines: CONTRACTIONS. (i) Generally use -able when the companion word ends in -ation: abominable, abomination irritable, irritation (ii) Generally use -ible when the companion word ends in -ion: comprehensible, comprehension digestible, digestion (iii) Use -able after hard c and hard g: practicable (c sounds like k) navigable (hard g) (iv) Use -ible after soft c and soft g: forcible (c sounds like s) legible (g sounds like j) See also ADDING ENDINGS (ii); SOFT C AND SOFT G. 1 ABRIDGEMENT/ABRIDGMENT abridgement/ abridgment Both spellings are correct. Use either but be consistent within one piece of writing. abscess This is a favourite word in spelling quizzes. (not absess or abcess) absence absent (not absc-) absolute absolutely (not absoloute, absoloutely) absorb absorption. Notice how b changes to p here. abstract nouns See accept or except? We ACCEPT your apology. Everybody was there EXCEPT Stephen. accessary or accessory? If you want to preserve the traditional distinction in meaning between these two words, use ACCESSARY to refer to someone associated with a crime and ACCESSORY to refer to something that is added (a fashion accessory or car accessories). However, the distinction has now become blurred and it is perfectly acceptable to use one spelling to cover both meanings. Of the two, accessory is the more widely used, but both are correct. accessible (not -able) accidentally The adverb is formed by adding -ly to accidental. (not accidently) accommodation This is a favourite word in spelling quizzes and is frequently seen misspelt on painted signs. (not accomodation or accommadation) accross Wrong spelling. See accumulate (not -mm-) 2 NOUNS. ACROSS. ADDING ENDINGS achieve achieved, achieving, achievement (not -ei-) See also ADDING ENDINGS (ii.); EI/IE SPELLING RULE. Both spellings are correct but be consistent within one piece of writing. acquaint acquainted (not aq-) acquaintance (not -ence) acquiesce acquiesced, acquiescing (not aq-) acquiescence (not -ance) acquire acquired, acquiring, acquisition (not aq-) acreage Note that there are three syllables here. (not acrage) across AM FL Y acknowledgement/ acknowledgment (not accross) Traditional usage would distinguish between these two words and reserve -er for the person (an adapter of novels, for instance) and -or for the piece of electrical equipment. However, the distinction has become very blurred and the two spellings are considered by many authorities to be interchangeable. Use either for both meanings but be consistent within a single piece of writing. TE adapter or adaptor? addendum (singular) addenda (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. adding endings Usually endings (suﬃxes) can be added to base words without any complications. You just add them and that is that! e.g. iron + ing = ironing steam + er = steamer list + less = listless However, there are four groups of words which need especial care. Fortunately, there are some straightforward rules 3 ADDING ENDINGS which save your learning thousands of words individually. (i) The 1-1-1 rule This rule applies to: words of ONE syllable ending with ONE consonant preceded by ONE vowel e.g. drop, ﬂat, sun, win. When you add an ending beginning with a consonant to a l-l-l word, there is no change to the base word: drop + let ﬂat + ly win + some = droplet = ﬂatly = winsome When you add an ending beginning with a vowel to a l-l-l word, you double the ﬁnal letter of the base word: drop + ed ﬂat + est win + ing sun + *y = = = = dropped ﬂattest winning sunny *y counts as a vowel when it sounds like i or e. See VOWELS. Treat qu as one letter: quit + ing quip + ed = quitting = quipped Don’t double ﬁnal w and x. They would look very odd and so we have correctly: tax + ing paw + ed = taxing = pawed (ii) The magic -e rule This rule applies to all words ending 4 ADDING ENDINGS with a silent -e. e.g. hope, care, achieve, sincere, separate. When you add an ending beginning with a consonant, keep the -e: hope + ful care + less sincere + ly separate + ly achieve + ment = = = = = hopeful careless sincerely separately achievement When you add an ending beginning with a vowel, drop the -e: hope + ing care + er sincere + ity separate + ion achieve + ed = = = = = hoping carer sincerity separation achieved Do, however, keep the -e in words like singeing (diﬀerent from singing) and dyeing (diﬀerent from dying) and whenever you need to keep the identity of the base word clear (e.g. shoeing, canoeing). Do remember to keep the -e with soft c and soft g words. It’s the e that keeps them soft (courageous, traceable). (See SOFT C AND SOFT G.) Don’t keep the -e with these eight exceptions to the rule: truly, duly, ninth, argument, wholly, awful, whilst, wisdom. (iii) -y rule This rule applies to all words ending in -y. Look at the letter before the -y in the base word. It doesn’t matter at all what kind of ending you are adding. When you add an ending to a word ending in a 5 ADDING ENDINGS vowel + y, keep the y: portray + ed = portrayed employ + ment = employment When you add an ending to a word ending in a consonant + y, change the y to i: try +al empty + er pity + less lazy + ness = = = = trial emptier pitiless laziness Do keep the y when adding -ing. Two i’s together would look very odd, despite our two words ski-ing and taxi-ing. try + ing empty + ing = trying = emptying Don’t apply the rule in these fourteen cases: daily, gaily, gaiety, laid, paid, said, slain, babyhood, shyly, shyness, dryness, slyness, wryly, wryness. (iv) The 2-1-1 rule This rule applies words of ending with preceded by to: TWO syllables ONE consonant ONE vowel. With this rule, it all depends on which syllable of the word is stressed. The 2-1-1 words below are stressed on the ﬁrst syllable, and both vowel and consonant endings are added without any complications: gossip target limit eager gossiping targeted limitless eagerness But note that kidnap, outﬁt, worship, always double their ﬁnal letter: 6 ADDING ENDINGS kidnapped, outﬁtter, worshipping Take care with 2-1-1 words which are stressed on the second syllable. There is no change when you add a consonant ending: forget + ful equip + ment = forgetful = equipment Double the ﬁnal consonant of the base word when you add a vowel ending: forget + ing equip + ed forbid + en begin + er = = = = forgetting equipped forbidden beginner This rule is really valuable but you must be aware of some exceptions: " 2-1-1 words ending in -l seem to have a rule all of their own. Whether the stress is on the ﬁrst or the second syllable, there is no change when a consonant ending is added: quarrel + some = quarrelsome instal + ment = instalment Double the -l when adding a vowel ending: quarrel + ing instal + ed excel + ent = quarrelling = installed = excellent " Notice how the change of stress in these words aﬀects the spelling: confer defer infer prefer refer transfer See also conferred deferred inferred preferred referred transferred conferring deferring inferring preferring referring transferring conference deference inference preference reference transference -ABLE/-IBLE; -ANCE,-ANT/-ENCE,-ENT; -CAL/-CLE; -FUL;-LY. 7 ADDRESS address (not adr-) adieu (singular) adieus or adieux (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. adrenalin/adrenaline Both spellings are correct. adress Wrong spelling. See advantageous advantage + ous Keep the -e in this instance. See SOFT C AND SOFT G. adverse or averse? These two words have diﬀerent meanings. ADDRESS. The ferries were cancelled owing to ADVERSE weather conditions. (= unfavourable) She is not AVERSE to publicity. (= opposed) advertisement advertise + ment See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). advice or advise? My ADVICE is to forget all about it. (noun = recommendation) What would you ADVISE me to do? (verb = recommend) adviser or advisor? Adviser is the traditionally correct British spelling. Advisor is more common in American English. advisory (not -ery) aerial Use the same spelling for the noun (a television AERIAL) and the adjective (an AERIAL photograph). aﬀect or eﬀect? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: Heavy drinking will AFFECT your liver. (verb) The EFFECT on her health was immediate. (noun) The new manager plans to EFFECT sweeping changes. (verb = to bring about) 8 ALLEY OR ALLY? afraid (not aﬀraid) ageing or aging? Both spellings are correct but many would prefer ageing as it keeps the identity of the base word (age) more easily recognised. See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). aggravate Strictly speaking, aggravate means to make worse. His rudeness AGGRAVATED an already explosive situation. It is, however, widely used in the sense of to irritate or to annoy. Be aware that some authorities would regard this second usage as incorrect. aggressive (not agr-) agree to/agree with The choice of preposition alters the meaning of the verb: I AGREED TO do what he advised. I AGREED TO all the conditions. I AGREED WITH all they said. See PREPOSITIONS. agreeable agreement (not agreable) For grammatical agreement, see SINGULAR OR PLURAL?. agressive Wrong spelling. See alga (singular) algae (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. allege (not -dge) alley or ally? An ALLEY is a little lane. An ALLY is a friend. alley (singular), alleys (plural) ally (singular), allies (plural) See PLURALS (iii). AGGRESSIVE. 9 ALL MOST OR ALMOST? all most or almost? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: They were ALL (= everyone) MOST kind. The child was ALMOST (=nearly) asleep. allowed or aloud? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: Are we ALLOWED (= permitted) to smoke in here? I was just thinking ALOUD (= out loud). all ready or already? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: We are ALL (= everyone) READY. It is ALL (= everything) READY. She was ALREADY dead (= by then). all right or alright? Traditional usage would consider ALL RIGHT to be correct and ALRIGHT to be incorrect. However, the use of ‘alright’ is so widespread that some would see it as acceptable although the majority of educated users would take care to avoid it. all so or also? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: You are ALL (= everyone) SO kind. You are ALSO (= in addition) generous. all together or altogether? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: They were ALL (= everybody) huddled TOGETHER for warmth. His situation is ALTOGETHER (= totally) diﬀerent from yours. allude or elude? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. ALLUDE means to refer to indirectly. ELUDE means to evade capture or recall. 10 ALTERNATIVES allusion, delusion or illusion? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. An ALLUSION is an indirect reference. A DELUSION is a false belief (often associated with a mental disorder). An ILLUSION is a deceptive appearance. all ways or always? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. These three routes are ALL (= each of them) WAYS into town. She ALWAYS (= at all times) tells the truth. almost See a lot Write as two words, not as one. Bear in mind that this construction is slang and not to be used in a formal context. aloud See ALLOWED OR ALOUD?. already See ALL READY OR ALREADY?. altar or alter? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. ALL MOST OR ALMOST?. The bride and groom stood solemnly before the ALTAR. Do you wish to ALTER (= change) the arrangements? alternate or alternative? alternatives We visit our grandparents on ALTERNATE Saturdays. (= every other Saturday) I ALTERNATE between hope and despair. (= have each mood in turn) An ALTERNATIVE plan would be to go by boat. (= another possibility) The ALTERNATIVES are simple: work or go hungry. (= two choices) Strictly speaking, the choice can be between only two alternatives (one choice or the other). However, the word is frequently used more loosely and this precise deﬁnition is becoming lost. 11 ALTOGETHER altogether See Alzheimer’s disease (not Alze-) amateur (not -mm-) ambiguity Always try to anticipate any possible confusion on the part of your reader. Check that you have made your meaning absolutely clear. ALL TOGETHER OR ALTOGETHER?. (i) Bear in mind that pronouns can be very vague. Consider this sentence: My brother told his friend that HE had won ﬁrst prize in the local photographic exhibition. Who is ‘he’, my brother or his friend? Rewrite more clearly: (a) My brother congratulated his friend on winning ﬁrst prize in the local photographic exhibition. (b) My brother, delighted to have won ﬁrst prize in the local photographic exhibition, told his friend. The other possibility is rather clumsy but is otherwise clear: (c) My brother told his friend that he (his friend) had won ﬁrst prize. (d) My brother told his friend that he (my brother) had won ﬁrst prize. (ii) Position the adverb ONLY with great care. It will refer to the word nearest to it, usually the word following. This may not be the meaning you intended. See how crucial to the meaning the position of ‘only’ can be: ONLY Sean eats ﬁsh on Fridays. (= No one else but Sean eats ﬁsh on Fridays.) 12 AMBIGUITY Sean ONLY eats ﬁsh on Fridays. (= Sean does nothing else to the ﬁsh on Fridays but eat it. He doesn’t buy it, cook it, look at it, smell it . . . .) Sean eats ONLY ﬁsh on Fridays. (= Sean eats nothing but ﬁsh on Fridays.) Sean eats ﬁsh ONLY on Fridays. Sean eats ﬁsh on Fridays ONLY. (= Sean eats ﬁsh on this one day in the week and never on any other.) (iii) Take care with the positioning of BADLY. AM FL Y This room needs cleaning BADLY. Does it? Or does it not need cleaning well? Rewrite like this: This room BADLY needs cleaning. TE (iv) Beware of causing initial bewilderment by not introducing a comma to indicate a pause. The shabby little riverside café was empty and full of wasps and ﬂies. Empty and full? The shabby little riverside café was empty, and full of wasps and ﬂies. See COMMAS (ix). (v) Avoid the danger of writing nonsense! DRIVING slowly along the road, THE CASTLE dominated the landscape. The castle is driving? Rewrite: As we drove slowly along the road, we saw how the castle dominated the landscape. 13 AMEND OR EMEND? COOKED slowly, the FAMILY will enjoy the cheaper cuts of meat. Rewrite: If the cheaper cuts of meat are cooked slowly, the family will enjoy them. See PARTICIPLES. (vi) Make sure the descriptive details describe the right noun! For sale: 1995 Peugeot 205 – one owner with power-assisted steering. Rewrite: For sale: 1995 Peugeot 205 with power-assisted steering – one owner. amend or emend? Both words mean ‘to make changes in order to improve’. Use AMEND or EMEND when referring to the correction of written or printed text. Use AMEND in a wider context such as AMENDING the law or AMENDING behaviour. ammount Wrong spelling. See among (not amoung) among/amongst Either form can be used. among or between? Use BETWEEN when something is shared by two people. Use AMONG when it is shared by three or more. AMOUNT. Share the sweets BETWEEN the two of you. Share the sweets AMONG yourselves. However, BETWEEN is used with numbers larger than two when it means an exact geographical location or when it refers to relationships. 14 -ANCE,-ANT/-ENCE,-ENT Sardinia lies BETWEEN Spain, Algeria, Corsica and Italy. It will take a long time before the rift BETWEEN the ﬁve main parties heals. amoral or immoral? There is a diﬀerence in meaning. AMORAL means not being governed by moral laws, acting outside them. (note -m-) IMMORAL means breaking the moral laws. (note -mm-) amoung Wrong spelling. See amount (not ammount) amount or number? AMOUNT is used with non-count nouns: AMONG. a small AMOUNT of sugar; a surprising AMOUNT of gossip. NUMBER is used with plural nouns: a NUMBER of mistakes; a NUMBER of reasons. analyse (not -ize as in American English) analysis (singular) analyses (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. -ance,-ant/-ence,-ent Words with these endings are diﬃcult to spell and you’ll always need to be on your guard with them. Check each word individually when in doubt, but here are some useful guidelines: (i) People are generally -ant: attendant, lieutenant, occupant, sergeant, tenant (but there are exceptions like superintendent, president, resident . . . .). (ii) Use -ance, -ant, where the companion words ends in -ation: dominance, dominant, domination, variance, variant, variation. 15 AND/BUT (iii) Use -ence, -ent after qu: consequence, consequent, eloquence, eloquent. (iv) Use -ance, -ant after hard c or hard g: signiﬁcance, signiﬁcant (c sounds like k) elegance, elegant (hard g) (v) Use -ence, -ent after soft c or soft g: innocence, innocent (c sounds like s) intelligent, intelligence (g sounds like j) See and/but SOFT C AND SOFT G. Many of us have been taught never to begin a sentence with AND or BUT. Generally speaking this is good advice. Both words are conjunctions and will therefore be busy joining words within the sentence: I should love to come AND I look forward to the party very much. They wanted to come BUT sadly they had to visit a friend in hospital some miles away. However, there are some occasions when you may need the extra emphasis that starting a new sentence with AND or BUT would give. If you have a good reason to break the rules, do so! angsiety Wrong spelling. See ANXIETY. angsious Wrong spelling. See annex or annexe? To ANNEX is to take possession of a country or part of a country. An ANNEX is another word for an appendix in an oﬃcial document. An ANNEXE is a building added to the main building. annoint Wrong spelling. See announce announced, announcing, announcer, announcement (not -n-) 16 ANXIOUS. ANOINT. APOLOGY annoy annoyed, annoying, annoyance (not anoy or annoied) annul annulled, annulling, annulment See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). anoint (not -nn-) anounce Wrong spelling. See ANNOUNCE. anoy Wrong spelling. See ANNOY. ante-/anti- ANTE- means before. antenatal = before birth ANTI- means against. antifreeze = against freezing antecedent This means earlier in time or an ancestor. (not anti-) See ANTE-/ANTI-. antediluvian This means very old-fashioned and primitive, literally ‘before the ﬂood of Noah’. (not anti-) See ANTE-/ANTI-. antenna This word has two plurals, each used in a diﬀerent sense: Use ANTENNAE to refer to insects. Use ANTENNAS to refer to television aerials. See FOREIGN PLURALS. anticlimax (not ante-) See ANTE-/ANTI-. antirrhinum (not -rh-) antisocial (not ante-) See ANTE-/ANTI-. anxiety (not angs-) anxious (not angs-) apologise/apologize Both spellings are correct. (not -pp) apology apologies (plural) See PLURALS (iii). 17 APON apon Wrong spelling. See apostrophes (i) UPON. Apostrophes can be used to show that letters have been omitted: " in contractions didn’t o’clock you’ve won’t " in poetry o’er vales and hills where’er you walk " in dialect ’Ere’s, ’Arry " in retail pick ’n’ mix salt ’n’ vinegar (ii) Apostrophes can be used to show ownership. Follow these simple guidelines and you’ll never put the apostrophe in the wrong place. Singular nouns or ‘owners’ The tail of the dog The dog’s tail Who ‘owns’ the tail? Put the apostrophe after the owner. Add -s. Add what is ‘owned’. the dog the dog’ the dog’s the dog’s tail The smile of the princess The princess’s smile Who ‘owns’ the smile? Put the apostrophe after the owner. Add -s. Add what is ‘owned’. 18 the princess the princess’ the princess’s the princess’s smile APOSTROPHES With proper names ending in -s, you have a choice, depending upon how the name is pronounced. Keats’ poetry or Keats’s poetry But St James’s Square, London, SW1 St James’ (two syllables) St James’s (three syllables) Plural nouns or ‘owners’ Don’t worry about whether you use ’s or s’ in the plural. It will sort itself out. The tails of the dogs The dogs’ tails Who ‘owns’ the tails? Put the apostrophe after the owners. Add -s if there isn’t one. Add what is ‘owned’ the dogs the dogs’ (no need here) the dogs’ tails The laughter of the women The women’s laughter Who ‘owns’ the laughter? Put the apostrophe after the owners. Add -s if there isn’t one. Add what is ‘owned’. the women the women’ the women’s the women’s laughter And so, when reading, you will be able to distinguish singular and plural ‘owners’. The princess’s suitors. The princesses’ suitors. The ‘owner’ is the word before the apostrophe. (iii) Apostrophes are also used in condensed expressions of time. The work of a moment. A moment’s work. 19 APPAL The work of three years. Three years’ work. If you follow the guidelines in (ii) above, you will never make a mistake. appal appalled, appalling (not -aul-) See also ADDING ENDINGS (iv). appearance (not -ence) appendix This word has two plurals, each used in a diﬀerent sense. Use APPENDIXES in an anatomical sense. Use APPENDICES when referring to supplementary sections in books or formal documents. See also FOREIGN PLURALS. appologise/-ize Wrong spelling. See APOLOGISE/APOLOGIZE. appology Wrong spelling. See APOLOGY. appreciate There are three distinct meanings of this word. I APPRECIATE your kindness (= recognise gratefully). I APPRECIATE that you have had a diﬃcult time lately (= understand). My cottage HAS APPRECIATED in value already (= increased). Some people would choose to avoid the second use above (understand, realise) but the verb is now widely used in this sense and this has become acceptable. approach approached, approaching (not apr-) aquaint Wrong spelling. See ACQUAINT. aquaintance Wrong spelling. See ACQUAINTANCE. aquarium (singular) aquaria or aquariums (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. 20 ARTIST OR ARTISTE? aquiesce Wrong spelling. See ACQUIESCE. aquiescence Wrong spelling. See ACQUIESCENCE. aquire Wrong spelling. See ACQUIRE. arange Wrong spelling. See ARRANGE. arbiter or arbitrator? An ARBITER is a judge or someone with decisive inﬂuence (an arbiter of fashion). In addition, an ARBITER may intervene to settle a dispute (-er). An ARBITRATOR is someone who is oﬃcially appointed to judge the rights and wrongs of a dispute (-or). arbitrator or mediator? An ARBITRATOR reaches a judgement but is not necessarily obeyed. A MEDIATOR attempts to bring two opposing sides together and to settle a dispute. archipelago There are two interchangeable plural forms: archipelagoes, archipelagos. arctic (not artic, although frequently mispronounced as such) argument (not arguement) arrange arranged, arranging, arrangement (not -r-) See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). artic Wrong spelling. See article (not -cal) See -CAL/-CLE. artist or artiste? Traditionally, an ARTIST is skilled in one or more of the ﬁne arts (painting, for example, or sculpture). Traditionally, the term ARTISTE is reserved for a performer or entertainer (a music-hall ARTISTE). However, ARTIST is now being used to cover both meanings in the sense of ‘skilled practitioner’, and ARTISTE is becoming redundant. ARCTIC. 21 AS OR LIKE? as or like? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: You look AS if you have seen a ghost. You look AS though you have seen a ghost. AS I expected, he’s missed the train. You look LIKE your mother. asma Wrong spelling. See asphalt (not ashphalt, as it is frequently mispronounced) aspirin (not asprin, as it is frequently mispronounced) assassin (not assasin or asassin) assma Wrong spelling. See assume or presume? To ASSUME something to be the case is to take it for granted without any proof. To PRESUME something to be the case is to base it on the evidence available. assurance or insurance? Insurance companies distinguish between these two terms. ASSURANCE is the technical term given for insurance against a certainty (e.g. death) where payment is guaranteed. INSURANCE is the technical term given for insurance against a risk (such as ﬁre, burglary, illness) where payment is made only if the risk materialises. asthma (not asma or assma) astrology or astronomy? ASTROLOGY is the study of the inﬂuence of the stars and planets on human life and fortune. ASTRONOMY is the scientiﬁc study of the stars and planets. athlete (not athelete) athletics (not atheletics) 22 ASTHMA. ASTHMA. AXIS attached, attaching, attachment (not -tch) audible (not -able) audience (not -ance) aural or oral? AURAL refers to the ears and hearing. ORAL refers to the mouth and speaking. In speech these words can be very confusing as they are pronounced identically. authoritative (not authorative) autobiography or biography? An AUTOBIOGRAPHY is an account of his or her life by the author. A BIOGRAPHY is an account of a life written by someone else. automaton (singular) automata, automatons (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. avenge or revenge? AM FL Y attach The words are very close in meaning but AVENGE is often used in the sense of just retribution, punishing a wrong done to another. TE Hamlet felt bound to AVENGE his father’s death. REVENGE is often used in the sense of ‘getting one’s own back’ for a petty oﬀence. averse See awkward Notice -wkw-. The spelling itself looks awkward! axis (singular) axes (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. ADVERSE or AVERSE?. 23 B babyhood (not -i-) This word is an exception to the -y rule. See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). bachelor (not -tch-) bacillus (singular) bacilli (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. bacterium (singular) bacteria (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. badly This word is often carelessly positioned with disastrous eﬀects on meaning. See AMBIGUITY (iii). banister/bannister banisters, bannisters (plural) Although the ﬁrst spelling is more widely used, both spellings are correct. bargain (not -ian) basically basic + ally (not basicly) batchelor Wrong spelling. See bath or bathe? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: BACHELOR. I have a BATH every morning (= I have a wash in the bath). I BATH the baby every day (= wash in a bath). I have had a new BATH ﬁtted. We BATHE every day (= swim). BATHE the wound with disinfectant (= cleanse). We have a BATHE whenever we can (= a swim). beach or beech? 24 Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: Budleigh Salterton has a stony BEACH. BEECH trees shed their leaves in autumn. BETWEEN YOU AND I beautiful Use your knowledge of French beau to help you. before (not befor) begin Note these forms and spellings: I begin, I am beginning. I began, I have begun. beginner (not -n-) beige (not -ie-) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. belief (not -ei) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. believe believed, believing, believer See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). beneﬁt beneﬁted, beneﬁting It is a common mistake to use -tt-. berth or birth? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: We have a spare BERTH on our boat. We are proud to announce the BIRTH of a daughter. beside or besides? Use BESIDE in the sense of next to, by the side of: Your glasses are BESIDE your bed. May I sit BESIDE you? Use BESIDES in the sense of also, as well as: BESIDES, I can’t aﬀord it. BESIDES being very clever, Ann also works hard. between See between you and I Incorrect. Write: between you and me. See PREPOSITIONS. AMONG OR BETWEEN?. 25 BI- bi- This preﬁx means ‘two’. Hence bicycle bifocals bigamy, and so on. Note, however, that some words beginning with ‘bi’ can be ambiguous. See BIMONTHLY and BIWEEKLY. See also BIANNUAL OR BIENNIAL?. biannual or biennial? BIANNUAL means twice a year (not -n-). BIENNIAL means every two years (a biennial festival) or lasting for two years (horticultural, etc). (not -ual) bicycle bi + cycle (not bycycle or bycicle) bidding or biding? bid + ing = bidding The BIDDING at the auction was fast and furious. BIDDING farewell, the knight cantered away. bide + ing = biding. Her critics were just BIDING their time. See ADDING ENDINGS (i) and (ii). biege Wrong spelling. See biennial See bimonthly Avoid using BIMONTHLY as it has two conﬂicting meanings. It can mean both every two months and also twice a month. (Compare BIWEEKLY.) binoculars (not -nn-) biography See biscuit (not -iu-) biulding Wrong spelling. See bivouac bivouacked, bivouacking See SOFT C AND SOFT G. 26 BEIGE. BIANNUAL OR BIENNIAL?. AUTOBIOGRAPHY OR BIOGRAPHY? BUILDING. BORROW OR LEND? biweekly This word has two conﬂicting meanings and is perhaps best avoided. It can mean both every two weeks (i.e. fortnightly) and also twice a week. (Compare BIMONTHLY.) bizarre (not -zz-) blond or blonde? BLOND is used to describe men’s hair. BLOND is used to describe women’s hair. A BLONDE is a woman. board or bored? A BOARD is a piece of wood, also a committee or similar group of people. To BOARD means to get on (train, etc.) and also to pay for living in someone’s house and having food provided. BORED means uninterested. boarder or border? A BOARDER is a person who pays to live in someone’s house. A BORDER is the edge or boundary of something. boisterous (not boistrous, although often mispronounced as two syllables) boney/bony Both spellings are correct, although the second spelling is more commonly used. border See BOARDER OR BORDER?. bored See BOARD OR BORED?. bored by, bored with (not bored of) born or borne? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: Dickens was BORN in Portsmouth. She has BORNE ﬁve children. He has BORNE a heavy burden of guilt all his life. borrow or lend? May I BORROW your pen? (= use your pen temporarily) Please LEND me your pen. (= pass it to me and allow me to use it) 27 BOTH . . . AND both . . . and Take care with the positioning of each half of this paired construction. Each must introduce grammatically similar things: He is BOTH clever AND hardworking. (not: He both is clever and hardworking!) He BOTH paints AND sculpts. He bought BOTH the gardening tools AND the DIY kit. Notice, however, the ambiguity in the last example. It could mean that there were just two gardening tools and he bought both of them. In the case of possible confusion, always replace: He bought the gardening tools and also the DIY kit. He bought the two gardening tools and also the DIY kit. He bought both of the gardening tools and also the DIY kit. bought or brought? BOUGHT is the past tense of to buy. She BOUGHT eggs, bacon and bread. BROUGHT is the past tense of to bring. They BROUGHT their books home. bouncy brackets (not -ey) See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). Round brackets enclose additional information which the writer wants to keep separate from the main body of the sentence. Jane Austen (born in 1775) died in Winchester. My neighbour (have you met her?) has won £250,000. Notice how sentences in brackets are not fully punctuated. 28 BUISNESS They don’t begin with a capital letter or have a full stop at the end if they occur within another sentence as in the example above. They do, however, have a question mark or an exclamation mark, if appropriate. Square brackets indicate the material has been added to the original by another writer: When I [Hilaire Belloc] am dead, I hope it may be said: ‘His sins were scarlet, but his books were read.’ breath or breathe? BREATH is the noun, and rhymes with ‘death’. He called for help with his dying BREATH. BREATHE is the verb and rhymes with ‘seethe’. BREATHE deeply and ﬁll those lungs! brief, brieﬂy (not -ei-) Britain (not -ian) Brittany (not Britanny) broach or brooch? You BROACH a diﬃcult topic or BROACH a bottle. You wear a BROOCH. broccoli (not brocolli) broken (not brocken) brought See buﬀalo (singular) buﬀaloes (plural) See PLURALS (iv). building (not -iu-) buisness Wrong spelling. See BOUGHT OR BROUGHT?. BUSINESS. 29 BUREAU bureau bureaux, bureaus (plural) Both forms are correct. See FOREIGN PLURALS. bureaucracy (not -sy) burglar (not burgular, as often mispronounced) burned/burnt Both forms are correct. business (not buisness) but See buy/by Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: AND/BUT. I need to BUY some new jeans. The book is BY Charlotte Brontë. Wait BY the gate. The children rushed BY. 30 C cactus (singular) cactuses or cacti (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. caﬀeine (not -ie-) -cal/-cle Adjectives end in -cal. Nouns end in -cle. e.g. critical logical magical musical nautical physical practical theatrical tropical whimsical calculator article bicycle circle cubicle cuticle miracle particle spectacle uncle vehicle (not -er) calendar calf (singular) calves (plural) See PLURALS (v). callous or callus? CALLOUS means cruel, insensitive, not caring about how others feel. CALLUS means a hard patch of skin or tissue. Interestingly, skin may be CALLOUSED (made hard) or CALLUSED (having calluses). can or may? Strictly speaking, CAN means ‘being able’ and MAY means ‘having permission’. It is best to preserve this distinction in formal contexts. However, informally, CAN is used to cover both meanings: 31 CANING OR CANNING? You CAN go now (= are permitted). caning or canning? cane + ing = caning CANING is now banned in all schools. Can + ing = canning The CANNING factory is closing down. (See ADDING ENDINGS (i) and (ii).) canister (not -nn-) cannon or canon? A CANON is a cleric. A CANNON is a large gun. cannot or can not? Both forms are acceptable but the second is rarely seen. canoe canoed, canoeing, canoeist See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). canon See can’t Contraction of CANNOT. canvas or canvass? CANVAS is a rough cloth. To CANVASS is to ask for votes. capital letters Use a capital letter in these circumstances: CANNON OR CANON?. " to begin a sentence: My father will be ﬁfty tomorrow. " to begin sentences of direct speech: ‘You will be sorry for this in the morning,’ she said. She said, ‘You will be sorry for this in the morning. You never learn.’ " for the pronoun ‘I’ wherever it comes in the sentence: You know that I have no money. " for all proper nouns – names of: people (Mary Browne) countries (Malta) 32 CAPITAL LETTERS languages (French) religious festivals (Easter, Diwali) ﬁrms (Express Cleaners) organisations (the British Broadcasting Corporation) historical periods (the Renaissance) (the Neolithic Period) days of the week (Monday) months of the year (September) but not usually the seasons. Note these adjectives derived from proper nouns also have a capital letter: a Jewish festival; a German poet AM FL Y However, the capital is dropped when the connection with the proper noun becomes lost: venetian blinds, french windows Note also that titles are capitalised only when part of a proper noun: TE Bishop Christopher Budd, otherwise the bishop Aunt Gladys, otherwise my aunt Captain Llewellyn, otherwise the captain " to begin lines of poetry (although some poets like e.e. cummings dispense with this convention) " to mark the ﬁrst word and the subsequent key words in titles: The Taming of the Shrew An Old Wives’ Tale " for emphasis: And then – BANG! " for some acronyms and initialisms: 33 CAPITAL PUNISHMENT OR CORPORAL PUNISHMENT? NATO UNESCO CAFOD OXFAM PTO RSVP Note that some acronyms have now become words in their own right and are no longer written in capitals: laser, sauna, radar. Note also that some initialisms are usually written in lower case: i.e., e.g., c/o, wpm. " for the Deity as a mark of respect and for sacred books: God, Jesus Christ, the Holy Spirit, the Almighty, Allah, Jehovah, Yahweh the Bible, the Koran, the Vedas " for each word of an address: Mrs Anna Sendall 10 Furze Crescent ALPHINGTON Hants PD6 9EF " for the salutation in a letter (ﬁrst word and key words only) and for the ﬁrst letter of the complimentary close: Dear Sir Dear Mrs Hughes My dear niece Yours faithfully Yours sincerely With much love With best wishes capital punishment or corporal punishment? CAPITAL PUNISHMENT = death CORPORAL PUNISHMENT = beating cappuccino (not -p-) 34 CAULIFLOWER capsize This is the only verb in the English language of more than one syllable that must end in -ize. captain (not -ian) capuccino Wrong spelling. See career (not -rr-) cargo (singular) cargoes (plural) See PLURALS (iv). Caribbean (not -rr-, not -b-) carreer Wrong spelling. See CAREER. carrying carry + ing See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). CAPPUCCINO. cast or caste? Use CAST for a group of actors in a play and for a plaster CAST and a CAST in an eye. Use CASTE when referring to a social group in Hindu society. caster or castor? Both caster sugar and castor sugar are correct. Both sugar caster and sugar castor are correct. Both casters and castors can be used when referring to the little wheels ﬁxed to the legs of furniture. But castor oil, not caster oil. catagorical Wrong spelling. See CATEGORICAL. catagory Wrong spelling. See CATEGORY. catarrh (not -rh) catastrophe (not -y) categorical categorically (not cata-) category (singular) categories (plural) (not cata-) cauliﬂower (not -ﬂour) 35 CEILING ceiling (not -ie-) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. Cellophane (not Sello-) censer, censor or censure? A CENSER is a container in which incense is burnt during a religious ceremony. A CENSOR is a person who examines plays, books, ﬁlms, etc. before deciding if they are suitable for public performance or publication. To CENSOR is to do the work of a CENSOR. CENSURE is oﬃcial and formal disapproval or condemnation of an action. To CENSURE is to express this condemnation in a formal written or spoken statement. centenarian or centurion? A CENTENARIAN is someone who is at least 100 years old. A CENTURION is the commander of a company of 100 men in the ancient Roman army. century (singular) centuries (plural) (not centua-) See PLURALS (iii). cereal or serial? CEREAL is food processed from grain. A SERIAL is a book or radio or television performance delivered in instalments. ceremonial or ceremonious? Both adjectives come from the noun CEREMONY. CEREMONIAL describes the ritual used for a formal religious or public event (a CEREMONIAL occasion). CEREMONIOUS describes the type of person who likes to behave over-formally on social occasions. It is not altogether complimentary (a CEREMONIOUS wave of the hand). 36 CHILDISH OR CHILDLIKE? ceremony (singular) ceremonies (plural) See PLURALS (iii). certain or curtain CERTAIN means sure. Are you CERTAIN that he apologised? CURTAINS are window drapes. Do draw the CURTAINS. Note that the c sounds like s in certain and like k in curtain. See SOFT C AND SOFT G. changeable (not -gable) See SOFT C AND SOFT G. chaos chaotic character (not charachter) chateau/château (singular) chateaux or châteaux (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. check or cheque? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: Always CHECK your work. May I pay by CHEQUE? (not ‘check’ as in the United States) cherub (singular) This word has two plurals. Cherubim is reserved exclusively for the angels often portrayed as little children with wings. Cherubs can be used either for angels or for enchanting small children. chestnut (not chesnut, as it is often mispronounced) chief (singular) chiefs (plural) See PLURALS (v). childish or childlike? The teenager was rebuked by the magistrate for his CHILDISH behaviour. (i.e. which he should have outgrown) The grandfather has retained his sense of CHILDLIKE wonder at the beauty of the 37 CHIMNEY natural world. (i.e. marvellously direct, innocent and enthusiastic) chimney (singular) chimneys (plural) See PLURALS (iii). chior Wrong spelling. See chocolate (not choclat although often mispronounced as such) choice (not -se) choir (not -io-) choose I I I I chord or cord? CHORD is used in a mathematical or musical context. CORD refers to string and is generally used when referring to anatomical parts like the umbilical cord, spinal cord and vocal cords. Note: you will occasionally see CHORD used instead of CORD in a medical context but it seems very old-fashioned now. Christianity (not Cr-) Christmas (not Cristmas or Chrismas) chronic (not cr-) This word is often misused. It doesn’t mean terrible or serious. It means longlasting, persistent, when applied to an illness. chrysanthemum (not cry-) chrystal Wrong spelling. See CRYSTAL. cieling Wrong spelling. See CEILING. cigarette (not -rr) 38 CHOIR. CHOOSE my words carefully. am CHOOSING my words carefully. CHOSE my words carefully yesterday. have CHOSEN them carefully. COLONEL OR KERNEL? cite, sight or site? To CITE means to refer to. SIGHT is vision or something seen. A SITE is land, usually set aside for a particular purpose. clarity See clothes or cloths? CLOTHES are garments. CLOTHS are dusters or scraps of material. coarse or course? COARSE means vulgar, rough: COARSE language, COARSE cloth. AMBIGUITY. COURSE means certainly: OF COURSE COURSE also means a series of lectures, a direction, a sports area, and part of a meal: an advanced COURSE to change COURSE a golf COURSE the main COURSE codeine (not -ie-) colander (not -ar) collaborate collaborated, collaborating collaborator collaboration collapse collapsed, collapsing collapsible (not -able) colleagues collective nouns See college (not colledge) NOUNS. colloquial collossal Wrong spelling. See colonel or kernel? A COLONEL is a senior oﬃcer. A KERNEL is the inner part of a nut. COLOSSAL. 39 COLONS colons (i) Colons can introduce a list: Get your ingredients together: ﬂour, sugar, dried fruit, butter and milk. Note that a summing-up word should always precede the colon (here ‘ingredients’). (ii) Colons can precede an explanation or ampliﬁcation of what has gone before: The teacher was elated: at last the pupils were gaining in conﬁdence. Note that what precedes the colon must always be able to stand on its own grammatically. It must be a sentence in its own right. (iii) Colons can introduce dialogue in a play: Henry (with some embarrassment): It’s all my own fault. (iv) Colons can be used instead of a comma to introduce direct speech: Henry said, with some embarrassment: ‘It’s all my own fault.’ (v) Colons can introduce quotations: Donne closes the poem with the moving tribute: ‘Thy ﬁrmness makes my circle just And makes me end where I began.’ (vi) Colons can introduce examples as in this reference book. Compare SEMICOLONS. colossal (not -ll-) colour (not color, as in American English) 40 COMMAS colourful comemorate Wrong spelling. See comfortable (four syllables, not three) coming come + ing = coming (not comming) See ADDING ENDINGS (ii) comission Wrong spelling. See commands (i) COMMEMORATE. COMMISSION. Direct commands, if expressed emphatically, require an exclamation mark: Stop, thief! Put your hands up! Stop talking! If expressed calmly and conversationally, however, a full stop is suﬃcient: Just wait there a moment and I’ll be with you. Tell me your story once again. (ii) Reported commands (indirect commands) never need an exclamation mark because, when they are reported, they become statements. He ordered the thief to stop. She told him to put his hands up. The teacher yelled at the class to stop talking. commas Commas are so widely misused that it is worth discussing their function in some detail. First, let us make it very clear when commas cannot be used. (a) A comma should never divide a subject from its verb. The two go together: My parents, had very strict views. My parents had very strict views. 41 COMMAS Take extra care with compound subjects: The grandparents, the parents, and the children, were in some ways to blame. The grandparents, the parents, and the children were in some ways to blame. (b) Commas should never be used in an attempt to string sentences together. Sentences must be either properly joined (and commas don’t have this function) or clearly separated by full stops, question marks or exclamation marks. Commas have certain very speciﬁc jobs to do within a sentence. Let us look at each in turn: (i) Commas separate items in a list: I bought apples, pears, and grapes. She washed up, made the beds, and had breakfast. The novel is funny, touching, and beautifully written. The ﬁnal comma before ‘and’ in a list is optional. However, use it to avoid any ambiguity. See (ix) below. (ii) Commas are used to separate terms of address from the rest of the sentence: Sheila, how nice to see you! Can I help you, madam? I apologise, ladies and gentlemen, for this delay. Note that a pair of commas is needed in the last example above because the term of address occurs mid-sentence. It is a very common error to omit 42 COMMAS one of the commas. (iii) Commas are used to separate interjections, asides and sentence tags like isn’t it? don’t you? haven’t you?. You’ll notice in the examples below that all these additions could be removed and these sentences would still be grammatically sound: My mother, despite her good intentions, soon stopped going to the gym. Of course, I’ll help you when I can. You’ve met Tom, haven’t you? AM FL Y (iv) Commas are used to mark oﬀ phrases in apposition: Prince Charles, the future king, has an older sister. The phrase ‘the future king’ is another way of referring to ‘Prince Charles’ and is punctuated just like an aside. TE (v) A comma separates any material that precedes it from the main part of the sentence: Although she admired him, she would never go out with him. If you want to read the full story, buy The Sunday Times. Note that if the sentences are reversed so that the main part of the sentence comes ﬁrst, the comma becomes optional. (vi) Commas mark oﬀ participles and participial phrases, whenever they come in the sentence: Laughing gaily, she ran out of the room. He ﬂung himself on the sofa, 43 COMMAS overcome with remorse. The children, whispering excitedly, crowded through the door. For a deﬁnition of participles see PARTICIPLES. (vii) Commas mark oﬀ some adjectival clauses. Don’t worry too much about the grammatical terminology here. You’ll be able to decide whether you need to mark them oﬀ in your own work by matching them against these examples. Can you see the diﬀerence in meaning that a pair of commas makes here? Read the two sentences aloud, pausing where the commas indicate that you should pause in the ﬁrst sentence, and the two diﬀerent meanings should become clear: The ﬁremen, who wore protective clothing, were uninjured. (= nobody injured) The ﬁremen who wore protective clothing were uninjured. (but those who didn’t wear it . . .) (viii) Commas are used to mark a pause at a suitable point in a long sentence. This will be very much a question of style. Read your own work carefully and decide exactly how you want it to be read. (ix) Commas are sometimes needed to clarify meaning. In the examples below, be aware how the reader could make an inappropriate connection: She reversed the car into the main road and my brother waved goodbye. 44 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE She reversed the car into the main road and my brother?? She reversed the car into the main road, and my brother waved goodbye. In the skies above the stars glittered palely. In the skies above the stars?? In the skies above, the stars glittered palely. Notice how the comma can sometimes be essential with ‘and’ in a list: We shopped at Moores, Browns, Supervalu, Marks and Spencer and Leonards. Is the fourth shop called Marks, or Marks and Spencer? Is the ﬁfth shop called Leonards, or Spencer and Leonards? A comma makes all clear: We shopped at Moores, Browns, Supervalu, Marks and Spencer, and Leonards. commemorate (not -m-) comming Wrong spelling. See commission (not -m-) commit committed, committing, commitment See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). COMING. committee common nouns See comparative comparatively (not compari-) comparative and superlative (i) NOUNS. Use the comparative form of adjectives and adverbs when comparing two: 45 COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE John is TALLER than Tom. John works MORE ENERGETICALLY than Tom. Use the superlative form when comparing three or more: John is the TALLEST of all the engineers. John works THE MOST ENERGETICALLY of all the engineers. (ii) There are two ways of forming the comparative and superlative of adjectives: (a) Add -er and -est to short adjectives: tall taller tallest happy happier happiest (b) Use more and most with longer adjectives: dangerous more dangerous most dangerous successful more successful most successful The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are formed in exactly the same way: (c) Short adverbs add -er and -est. You run FASTER than I do. He runs the FASTEST of us all. (d) Use more and most with longer adverbs. Nikki works MORE CONSCIENTIOUSLY than Sarah. Niamh works THE MOST CONSCIENTIOUSLY of them all. (iii) There are three irregular adjectives: good better best bad worse worst 46 COMPLEMENTARY OR COMPLIMENTARY? many more most There are four irregular adverbs: well better best badly worse worst much more most little less least (iv) A very common error is to mix the two methods of forming the comparative and the superlative: more simpler more easiest simpler easiest (v) Another pitfall is to try to form the comparative and superlative of absolute words like perfect, unique, excellent, complete, ideal. Something is either perfect or it isn’t. It can’t be more perfect or less perfect, most perfect or least perfect. compare to/ compare with Both constructions are acceptable but many people still prefer to use ‘compare with’. comparitive Wrong spelling. See competition competitive, competitively. compleatly Wrong spelling. See complement or compliment? COMPLEMENT = that which completes Half the ship’s COMPLEMENT were recruited in Norway. To COMPLEMENT = to go well with something Her outﬁt was COMPLEMENTED by wellchosen accessories. COMPARATIVE. COMPLETELY. COMPLIMENT = praise, ﬂattering remarks To COMPLIMENT = to praise. complementary or complimentary? Use COMPLEMENTARY in the sense of completing a whole: 47 COMPLETELY COMPLEMENTARY medicine COMPLEMENTARY jobs Use COMPLIMENTARY in two senses: (a) ﬂattering (b) free of charge COMPLIMENTARY remarks COMPLIMENTARY tickets completely complete + ly (not completly, completley or compleatly) See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). complex or complicated? Both words mean ‘made up of many diﬀerent intricate and confusing aspects’. However, use COMPLEX when you mean ‘intricate’, and COMPLICATED when you mean ‘diﬃcult to understand’. compliment See compose/comprise The report IS COMPOSED OF ten sections. (= is made up of) The report COMPRISES ten sections. (= contains) COMPLEMENT OR COMPLIMENT?. Never use the construction ‘is comprised of’. It is always incorrect grammatically. comprise (not -ize) compromise (not -ize) computer (not -or) concede conceive conceived, conceiving, conceivable See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. concise confer conferred, conferring, conference See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). conﬁdant, conﬁdante or conﬁdent? A CONFIDANT (male or female) or a CONFIDANTE (female only) is someone 48 CONTEMPORARY to whom one tells one’s secrets ‘in conﬁdence’. CONFIDENT means assured. connection or connexion? Both spellings are correct, but the ﬁrst one is more commonly used. connoisseur Used for both men and women. conscientious consist in or consist of? For Belloc, happiness CONSISTED IN ‘laughter and the love of friends’. (consist in = have as its essence) Lunch CONSISTED OF bread, cheese and fruit. consistent (not -ant) consonant There are 21 consonants in the alphabet, all the letters except for the vowels: bcdfghjklmnpqrstvwxyz Note, however, that y can be both a vowel and a consonant: y is a consonant when it begins a word or a syllable (yolk, beyond); y is a vowel when it sounds like i or e (sly, baby). contagious or infectious? Both refer to diseases passed to others. Strictly speaking, CONTAGIOUS means passed by bodily contact, and INFECTIOUS means passed by means of air or water. Used ﬁguratively, the terms are interchangeable: INFECTIOUS laughter, CONTAGIOUS enthusiasm. contemporary (not contempory, as often mispronounced) Nowadays, this word is used in two senses: 49 CONTEMPTIBLE OR CONTEMPTUOUS (a) happening or living at the same time (in the past) (b) modern, current Be aware of possible ambiguity if both these meanings are possible in a given context: Hamlet is being performed in contemporary dress (sixteenth-century or modern?). contemptible or contemptuous A person or an action worthy of contempt is CONTEMPTIBLE. A person who shows contempt is CONTEMPTUOUS. continual continually continual or continuous? CONTINUAL means frequently repeated, occurring with short breaks only. CONTINUOUS means uninterrupted. contractions Take care with placing the apostrophe in contractions. It is placed where the letter has been omitted and not where the two words are joined. These happen to coincide in some contractions: I’d (I would) they aren’t (they are not) it isn’t (it is not) you hadn’t (you had not) you wouldn’t (you would not) she won’t (she will not) we haven’t (we have not) I shan’t (I shall not) It was common in Jane Austen’s time to use two apostrophes in shan’t (sha’n’t) to show that two sets of letters had been omitted but this is no longer correct today. control controlled, controlling controller (not -or) 50 COURAGEOUS convenience (not -ance) convenient conveniently (not convien-) cord See CHORD OR CORD?. corporal punishment See CAPITAL OR CORPORAL PUBLISHMENT?. correspond (not -r-) correspondence (not -ance) correspondent or co-respondent? A CORRESPONDENT is someone who writes letters. A CO-RESPONDENT is cited in divorce proceedings. could of This is incorrect and arises from an attempt to write down what is heard. Write ‘could’ve’ in informal contexts and ‘could have’ in formal ones. I COULD HAVE given you a lift. I COULD’VE given you a lift. Beware also: should of/would of/must of/ might of. All are incorrect forms. couldn’t See council or counsel? A COUNCIL is a board of elected representatives. COUNSEL is advice, also the term used for a barrister representing a client in court. councillor or counsellor? A COUNCILLOR is an elected representative. A COUNSELLOR is one who gives professional guidance, such as a study COUNSELLOR, a marriage COUNSELLOR, a debt COUNSELLOR. This is one of the few exceptions to the IE/EI spelling rule. See IE/EI SPELLING RULE. counterfeit courageous CONTRACTIONS. (not -gous) See SOFT C AND SOFT G. 51 COURSE course See courteous courteously, courtesy COARSE OR COURSE?. credible or credulous? If something is CREDIBLE, it is believable. If someone is CREDULOUS, they are gullible (i.e. too easily taken in). crisis (singular) crises (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. criterion (singular) criteria (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. criticise/criticize Both spellings are correct. criticism This word is frequently misspelt. Remember critic + ism. cronic Wrong spelling. See CHRONIC. crucial cry cried, crying See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). crysanthemum Wrong spelling. See crystal (not chr-) cupboard (not cub-) curb or kerb To CURB one’s temper means to control or restrain it. A CURB is a restraint (e.g. a curb bit for a horse). A KERB is the edging of a pavement. CHRYSANTHEMUM. curious curiosity (not -ious-) curly (not -ey) currant or current? A CURRANT is a small dried grape used in cooking. A CURRENT is a steady ﬂow of water, air or electricity. CURRENT can also mean happening at 52 CURTAIN the present time (as in CURRENT aﬀairs, CURRENT practice). curriculum (singular) curriculums/curricula (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. curriculum vitae (abbreviation: CV) curtain See TE AM FL Y CERTAIN OR CURTAIN?. 53 D daily (not dayly) This is an exception to the -y rule. See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). dairy or diary? We buy our cream at a local DAIRY. Kate writes in her DIARY every day. dangling participles See dashes Dashes are used widely in informal notes and letters. PARTICIPLES. (i) A dash can be used to attach an afterthought: I should love to come – that’s if I can get the time oﬀ. (ii) A dash can replace a colon before a list in informal writing: The thieves took everything – video, television, cassettes, computer, camera, the lot. (iii) A dash can precede a summary: Video, television, cassettes, computer, camera – the thieves took the lot. (iv) A pair of dashes can be used like a pair of commas or a pair of brackets around a parenthesis: Geraldine is – as you know – very shy with strangers. (v) A dash can mark a pause before the climax is reached: There he was at the foot of the stairs – dead. 54 DECIET (vi) Dashes can indicate hesitation in speech: I – er – don’t – um – know what – what to say. (vii) Dashes can indicate missing letters or even missing words where propriety or discretion require it: c – – – l (ship of the desert) Susan L—- comes from Exeter. He swore softly, ‘– it’. data (plural) datum (singular) Strictly speaking, DATA should be used with a plural verb: The DATA have been collected by research students. You will, however, increasingly see DATA used with a singular verb and this use has now become acceptable. The DATA has been collected by research students. dates See NUMBERS for a discussion of how to set out dates. deceased or diseased? DECEASED means dead. DISEASED means aﬀected by illness or infection. deceit (not -ie) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. deceive decent or descent? DECENT means fair, upright, reasonable. DESCENT means act of coming down, ancestry. decide decided, deciding (not decied-) deciet Wrong spelling. See DECEIT. 55 DECIEVE decieve Wrong spelling. See DECEIVE. decision décolletage (not de-) decrepit (not -id) defective or deﬁcient? DEFECTIVE means not working properly (a DEFECTIVE machine). DEFICIENT means lacking something vital (a diet DEFICIENT in vitamin C). defer deferred, deferring, deference See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). deﬃnite Wrong spelling. See deﬁcient See deﬁnate Wrong spelling. See deﬁnite (not -ﬀ-, not -ate) DEFINITE. DEFECTIVE OR DEFICIENT?. DEFINITE. deﬁnitely deisel Wrong spelling. See DIESEL. delapidated Wrong spelling. See DILAPIDATED. delusion See denouement/ dénouement Both spellings are correct. dependant or dependent? The adjective (meaning reliant) is always -ent. ALLUSION, DELUSION OR ILLUSION?. She is a widow with ﬁve DEPENDENT children. I am absolutely DEPENDENT on a pension. The noun (meaning someone who is dependent) has traditionally been spelt -ant. However, the American practice of writing either -ant or -ent for the noun has now spread here. Either spelling is now considered correct for the noun but 56 DEVICE/DEVISE be aware that some conservative readers would consider this slipshod. She has ﬁve DEPENDANTS/ DEPENDENTS. descent See describe (not dis-) description (not -scrib-) desease Wrong spelling. See desert or dessert? A DESERT is sandy. A DESSERT is a pudding. desiccated (not dess-) desirable (not desireable) See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). desperate (not desparate) The word is derived from spes (Latin word for hope). This may help you to remember the e in the middle syllable. dessert See dessiccated Wrong spelling. See destroy destroyed, destroying (not dis-) See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). detached (not detatched) deter deterred, deterring See ADDING ENDINGS DECENT OR DESCENT?. DISEASE. DESERT OR DESSERT?. DESICCATED. (iv). deteriorate (not deteriate, as it is often mispronounced) deterrent (not -ant) develop developed, developing (not -pp-) development (not developement) device/devise DEVICE is the noun. A padlock is an intriguing DEVICE. 57 DIAGNOSIS DEVISE is the verb. Try to DEVISE a simple burglar alarm. diagnosis (singular) diagnoses (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. diagnosis or prognosis? DIAGNOSIS is the identiﬁcation of an illness or a diﬃculty. PROGNOSIS is the forecast of its likely development and eﬀects. diarrhoea diary (singular) diaries (plural) See PLURALS (iii). See DAIRY OR DIARY?. dictionary (singular) dictionaries (plural) (not -nn-) See PLURALS (iii). didn’t (not did’nt) See CONTRACTIONS. diesel (not deisel) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. dietician/dietitian Both spellings are correct. diﬀercult Wrong spelling. See diﬀerence (not -ance) diﬀerent (not -ant) diﬀerent from/to/than ‘Diﬀerent from’ and ‘diﬀerent to’ are now both considered acceptable forms. DIFFICULT. My tastes are DIFFERENT FROM yours. My tastes are DIFFERENT TO yours. Conservative users would, however, much prefer the preposition ‘from’ and this is widely used in formal contexts. ‘Diﬀerent than’ is acceptable in American English but is not yet fully acceptable in British English. diﬃcult 58 (not diﬀercult, not diﬃcalt) DISCOVER OR INVENT? dilapidated (not delapidated) dilemma This word is often used loosely to mean ‘a problem’. Strictly speaking it means a diﬃcult choice between two possibilities. dinghy or dingy? A DINGHY is a boat (plural – dinghies). See PLURALS (iii). DINGY means dull and drab. dingo (singular) dingoes or dingos (plural) dining or dinning? dine + ing = dining (as in dining room) din + ing = dinning (noise dinning in ears) See ADDING ENDINGS (i) and (ii). diphtheria (not diptheria as it is often mispronounced) diphthong (not dipthong as it is often mispronounced) direct speech See disagreeable dis + agree + able disappear dis + appear disappearance (not -ence) disappoint dis + appoint disapprove dis + approve disassociate or dissociate? Both are correct, but the second is more widely used and approved. INVERTED COMMAS. disaster disastrous (not disasterous, as it is often mispronounced) disc or disk? Use ‘disc’ except when referring to computer disks. disciple (not disiple) discipline discover or invent? You DISCOVER something that has been there all the time unknown to you (e.g. a star). 59 DISCREET OR DISCRETE? You INVENT something if you create it for the ﬁrst time (e.g. a time machine). discreet or discrete? You are DISCREET if you can keep secrets and behave diplomatically. Subject areas are DISCRETE if they are quite separate and unrelated. discrepancy (singular) discrepancies (plural) discribe Wrong spelling. See DESCRIBE. discribtion Wrong spelling. See DESCRIPTION. discription Wrong spelling. See DESCRIPTION. discuss discussed, discussing discussion disease diseased See DECEASED OR DISEASED?. dishevelled disintegrate (not disintergrate) disinterested or uninterested? Careful users would wish to preserve a distinction in meaning between these two words. Use the word DISINTERESTED to mean ‘impartial, unselﬁsh, acting for the good of others and not for yourself’. My motives are entirely DISINTERESTED; it is justice I am seeking. Use UNINTERESTED to mean ‘bored’. His teachers say he is reluctant to participate and is clearly UNINTERESTED in any activities the school has to oﬀer. Originally, DISINTERESTED was used in this sense (= having no interest in, apathetic), and it is interesting that this meaning is being revived in popular speech. 60 DOESN’T Avoid this use in formal contexts, however, for it is widely perceived as being incorrect. disiple Wrong spelling. See disk See displace or misplace? To displace is to move someone or something from its usual place: DISCIPLE. DISC OR DISK?. A DISPLACED hip; a DISPLACED person. To misplace something is to put it in the wrong place (and possibly forget where it is): A MISPLACED apostrophe; MISPLACED kindness. dissappear Wrong spelling. See DISAPPEAR. dissappoint Wrong spelling. See DISAPPOINT. dissapprove Wrong spelling. See DISAPPROVE. dissatisﬁed (dis + satisﬁed) dissociate See distroy Wrong spelling. See divers or diverse The ﬁrst is rarely used nowadays except jokingly or in mistake for the second. DIVERS means ‘several’, ‘of varying types’: DIVERS reference books. DIVERSE means ‘very diﬀerent’: DIVERSE opinions, DIVERSE interests. does or dose? DOES he take sugar? He DOES. (pronounced ‘duz’). Take a DOSE of cough mixture every three hours. doesn’t (not does’nt) See CONTRACTIONS. DISASSOCIATE OR DISSOCIATE?. DESTROY. 61 DOMINO domino (singular) dominoes (plural) See PLURALS (iv). don’t (not do’nt) See CONTRACTIONS. dose See DOES OR DOSE?. double meaning See AMBIGUITY. double negatives The eﬀect of two negatives is to cancel each other out. This is sometimes done deliberately and can be eﬀective: I am not ungenerous. (= I am very generous.) He is not unintelligent. (= He is quite intelligent.) Frequently, however, it is not intentional and the writer ends up saying the opposite of what is meant: I haven’t had no tea. (= I have had tea.) You don’t know nothing. (= You know something.) Be particularly careful with ‘barely’, ‘scarcely’, ‘hardly’. These have a negative force. I wasn’t SCARCELY awake when you rang. (= I was very awake.) Be careful too with constructions like this: I wouldn’t be surprised if he didn’t come. Say either: I wouldn’t be surprised if he came. or: I would be surprised if he didn’t come. Sometimes writers put so many negatives in a sentence that the meaning becomes too complicated to unravel: Mr Brown denied vehemently that it was 62 DRIER OR DRYER? unlikely that no one would come to the concert. Does Mr Brown think that the concert will be popular or not? Rewrite as either: Mr Brown was certain the concert would be well attended. Or: Mr Brown feared that no one would come to the concert. doubling rule See ADDING ENDINGS doubt (not dout) The word is derived from the Latin word dubitare, to doubt. It may help you to remember why the silent b is there. downstairs AM FL Y Down’s Syndrome (i) and (iv). (not Downe’s) (one word) A DRAFT is a ﬁrst or subsequent attempt at a piece of written work before it is ﬁnished. A DRAUGHT is a current of cool air in a room. One also refers to a DRAUGHT of ale, a game of DRAUGHTS and a boat having a shallow DRAUGHT. TE draft or draught? drawers or draws? DRAWS is a verb. She DRAWS very well for a young child. DRAWERS is a noun. The DRAWERS of the sideboard are very stiﬀ. dreamed/dreamt Both spellings are correct. drier or dryer? DRIER is generally used for the comparative form (DRIER = more dry). DRYER is generally used for a drying machine (hair DRYER, clothes DRYER). 63 DRUNKENNESS However, both spellings are interchangeable. drunkenness drunken + ness dryness (exception to the -y rule) See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). dual or duel? DUAL means two (e.g. DUAL controls, DUAL carriageway). DUEL means ﬁght or contest. duchess (not dutchess) due to/owing to Strictly speaking, ‘due to’ should refer to a noun: His absence was DUE TO sickness. (noun) The delay was DUE TO leaves on the line. (noun) ‘Owing to’, strictly speaking, should refer to a verb: The march was cancelled OWING TO the storm. (verb) OWING TO an earlier injury, he limped badly. (verb) However, in recent years, the use of ‘due to’ where traditionally ‘owing to’ would be required has become widespread. Nevertheless, some careful writers continue to preserve the distinction and you may wish to do so too in a formal context. duel See duly (not duely) This is an exception to the magic -e rule. See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). dutchess Wrong spelling. See dwelled/dwelt Both spellings are correct. 64 DUAL OR DUEL?. DUCHESS. DYEING OR DYING? dyeing or dying? DYEING comes from the verb to dye. She was DYEING all her vests green. DYING comes from the verb to die. She cursed him with her DYING breath. 65 E earnest or Ernest? EARNEST = serious and sincere ERNEST = masculine ﬁrst name echo (singular) echoes (plural) See PLURALS (iv). economic or economical? ECONOMIC = related to the economy of the country, or industry or business ECONOMICAL = thrifty, avoiding extravagance ecstasy (singular) ecstasies (plural) See PLURALS (iv). Ecstasy illegal drug eczema -ed or -t? These can be either: burned dreamed dwelled kneeled leaned leaped learned smelled spelled spilled spoiled burnt dreamt dwelt knelt leant leapt learnt smelt spelt spilt spoilt eerie or eyrie? EERIE = strange, weird, disturbing EYRIE = an eagle’s nest eﬀect See eﬀective, eﬀectual or eﬃcient? EFFECTIVE = able to produce a result an EFFECTIVE cure an EFFECTIVE speech 66 AFFECT OR EFFECT?. EI/IE SPELLING RULE EFFECTUAL = likely to be completely successful: EFFECTUAL prayer EFFECTUAL legislation EFFICIENT = working well without wasting time, money or eﬀort: an EFFICIENT secretary an EFFICIENT engine ei/ie spelling rule Remember the jingle: i before e except after c or when sounded like a as in ‘neighbour’ and ‘weigh’. Here are some examples which follow the rule. There are plenty of others. ie achieve believe chief ﬁeld friend hygiene priest relief retrieve shield shriek thief ei after c ceiling conceited conceive perceive receive ei sounding like a eight reign reindeer skein sleigh vein 18 exceptions caﬀeine codeine counterfeit either Fahrenheit foreign forfeit heifer height leisure neither protein seize sheikh sovereign surfeit weir weird 67 EIGHTH Proper names (e.g. of people or countries) don’t follow the rule: Deirdre, Keith, Neil, Sheila, Madeira, etc. eighth (notice -hth) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. either (not -ie-) An exception to the RULE. either . . .or (i) EI/IE SPELLING Take care with singular and plural verbs. Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: Either Jack or Tom was there. (singular verb to match Jack (singular) and Tom (singular)) Either Jack or his brothers were there. (plural verb to match ‘brothers’ (plural) which is closer to it than ‘Jack’ (singular) ) Either his brothers or Jack was there. (singular verb this time because ‘Jack’ (singular) is closer to the verb than ‘brothers’) (ii) Be careful to place each part of the ‘either . . . or’ construction correctly. I have decided either that I have to build an extension or I have to move. I have decided that either I have to build an extension or I have to move. In the example above, there are these two possibilities: I have to build an extension. I have to move. ‘Either’ precedes the ﬁrst one and ‘or’ precedes the second. 68 EMIGRANT OR IMMIGRANT? The second one could be shortened: I have decided that either I have to build an extension or (I have to) move. I have decided that either I have to build an extension or move. It is important that the two constructions following ‘either’ and ‘or’ should be parallel ones: either either either either meat or ﬁsh green or red to love or to hate with malice or with kindness. If the second construction is shortened to avoid repetition, this is ﬁne. The missing words are obvious and can be supplied readily. elf (singular) elves (plural) See PLURALS (v). eligible or legible? ELIGIBLE = suitably qualiﬁed LEGIBLE = able to be read eloquent elude See embargo (singular) embargoes (plural) See PLURALS (iv). embarrass embarrassed, embarrassing (not -r-) ALLUDE OR ELUDE?. embarrassment emend See emergency (singular) emergencies (plural) See PLURALS (iv). emigrant or immigrant? An EMIGRANT leaves his or her country to live in another. An IMMIGRANT moves into a country to live permanently. AMEND OR EMEND?. 69 EMINENT OR IMMINENT? eminent or imminent? EMINENT = famous IMMINENT = about to happen emperor emphasise/emphasize Both spellings are correct. encyclopaedia/ encyclopedia Both spellings are correct. endeavour end stops There are three end stops: a full stop (.), an exclamation mark (!), and a question mark (?). Use a full stop to end a statement. There are ﬁve eggs in the fridge. Use an exclamation mark with a command or an exclamation. Get out! Use a question mark to end a question. Where do you live? See EXCLAMATION MARKS. FULL STOPS. QUESTION MARKS. endings See enemy (singular) enemies (plural) See PLURALS (iv). enormity This means a grave sin or a crime, or describes something that is a grave sin or a crime or a disaster on a huge scale. ADDING ENDINGS. We gradually realised the full ENORMITY of the tragedy. It is often used in popular speech to mean ‘enormousness’, ‘hugeness’, ‘immensity’. This should be avoided in a formal context. 70 ERUPT enquiry or inquiry? Both spellings are correct and there is no diﬀerence in meaning. British English favours the ﬁrst and American English the second. Some writers reserve the ﬁrst for a general request for information and the second for a formal investigation, but this is by no means necessary. enrol enrolled, enrolling (British English – enrol; American English – enroll) enrolment (British English – enrolment; American English – enrollment) ensure or insure? to ENSURE = to make sure to INSURE = to arrange for ﬁnancial compensation in the case of loss, injury, damage or death enthusiasm (not -ou-) enthusiastic envelop enveloped, enveloping, envelopment (stress on second syllable) envelope (singular) envelopes (plural) (stress on third syllable) environment (not enviroment) epigram or epitaph? EPIGRAM = a short witty saying EPITAPH = an inscription on a tombstone equip equipped, equipping, equipment See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). Ernest See erratum (singular) errata (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. erring err + ing (not -r-) erupt (not -rr-) EARNEST OR ERNEST?. 71 ESPECIALLY OR SPECIALLY? especially or specially? The two words are very close in meaning and sometimes overlap. However, use these exemplar sentences as a guide to exclusive uses: I bought the car ESPECIALLY for you (= for you alone). We are awaiting a SPECIALLY commissioned report (= for a special purpose). estuary (singular) estuaries (plural) See PLURALS (iv). etc. (not e.t.c. or ect.) (i) etc. is an abbreviation of the Latin et cetera which means ‘and other things’. It is therefore incorrect to write ‘and etc.’. (ii) Avoid using ‘etc.’ in formal writing. Either list all the items indicated by the vague and lazy ‘etc.’, or introduce the given selection with a phrase like ‘including’, ‘such as’ or ‘for example’. eventually eventual + ly (not eventully) exaggerate (not exagerate) examination exausted Wrong spelling. See excellent (not -ant) except See exceptionable or exceptional? EXCEPTIONABLE = open to objection EXCEPTIONAL = unusual excercise Wrong spelling. See excite excited, exciting, excitement See ADDING ENDINGS (ii). exclaim exclaimed, exclaiming 72 EXHAUSTED. ACCEPT OR EXCEPT?. EXERCISE. EXPLICIT OR IMPLICIT? exclamation (not -claim-) exclamation mark Use an exclamation mark: (i) with exclamations Ouch! Oh! Hey! (ii) with vehement commands Stop thief! Help! Jump! See COMMANDS. exercise (not excercise) exhausted (not exausted) exhausting or exhaustive? EXHAUSTING = tiring EXHAUSTIVE = thorough, fully comprehensive AM FL Y exhibition exhilarated (not -er-) expendable expense (not expidition) The second syllable is derived from the Latin word pes, pedis (foot, of the foot). This may help you to remember -ped-. The words pedal, pedestrian, pedometer all come from this same Latin root. TE expedition (not -ible) expensive experience (not expierience, not -ance) The second syllable is derived from the Latin word per, meaning through. (Experience is what we gain from going ‘through’ something.) explain explained, explaining explanation (not -plain-) explicit or implicit? EXPLICIT = stated clearly and openly IMPLICIT = implied but not actually stated 73 EXSPENSE exspense Wrong spelling. See EXPENSE. exspensive Wrong spelling. See EXPENSIVE. exstremely Wrong spelling. See EXTREMELY. extraordinary extra + ordinary extravagance (not -ence) extravagant (not -ent) extremely extreme + ly extrordinary Wrong spelling. See exuberance (not -ence) exuberant (not -ent) eyrie See 74 EERIE OR EYRIE?. EXTRAORDINARY. F facetious (All ﬁve vowels occur in this word once only and in alphabetical order.) facilities or faculties? FACILITIES = amenities FACULTIES = mental or physical aptitudes facinate Wrong spelling. See factory (singular) factories (plural) See PLURALS (iv). Fahrenheit (not -ie-) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. faithfully faithful + ly See SINCERELY for guidelines when punctuating a complimentary close to a letter (fully blocked and also traditional layout). familiar (not fammiliar) family (singular) families (plural) (not -mm-) farther or further? Both words can be used to refer to physical distance although some writers prefer to keep ‘farther’ for this purpose. FASCINATE. I can walk FARTHER than you. I can walk FURTHER than you. FURTHER is used in a ﬁgurative sense: Nothing was FURTHER from my mind. FURTHER is also used in certain expressions: FURTHER education until FURTHER notice fascinate (not facinate) 75 FAVOURITE favourite (not -ate) feasible (not -able) February Notice the word has four syllables and not three as it is often mispronounced. fewer or less? FEWER is the comparative form of ‘few’. It is used with plural nouns: FEWER vegetables FEWER responsibilities FEWER children LESS is the comparative form of ‘little’. It is used in the sense of ‘a small amount’ rather than ‘a fewer number of’: LESS enthusiasm LESS sugar LESS petrol LESS THAN is used with number alone, and expressions of time and distance: LESS THAN a thousand LESS THAN ten seconds LESS THAN four miles It is considered incorrect to use ‘less’ instead of ‘fewer’ although such confusion is frequent in popular speech. As a rule of thumb, remember: FEWER = not so many LESS = not so much ﬁancé or ﬁancée? FIANCÉ = masculine FIANCÉE = feminine Note the accent in both words. ﬁctional or ﬁctitious? FICTIONAL = invented for the purpose of ﬁction, related to ﬁction FICTIONAL texts FICTIONAL writing 76 FOR- OR FORE-? FICTITIOUS = false, not true a FICTITIOUS report a FICTITIOUS name and address Either word can be used to describe a character in a work of ﬁction: a FICTIONAL or FICTITIOUS character. ﬁery (not ﬁrey) ﬁfteen ﬁfteenth ﬁfth ﬁfty ﬁftieth ﬁnally ﬁnal + ly (not -aly) ﬁnish ﬁnished, ﬁnishing (not -nn-) ﬁrey Wrong spelling. See ﬂamingo (singular) ﬂamingoes or ﬂamingos (plural) ﬂammable or inﬂammable Both words mean ‘easily bursting into ﬂame’. People often think that inﬂammable is the negative form but the preﬁx ‘in’ here means ‘into’. The opposite of these two words is non-ﬂammable or non-inﬂammable. ﬂee they ﬂed, have ﬂed, are ﬂeeing ﬂexible (not -able) ﬂu or ﬂue? FLU = inﬂuenza (not ’ﬂu although an abbreviation) FLUE = a pipe or duct for smoke and gases ﬂuorescent (not ﬂourescent) ﬂy they ﬂew, have ﬂown, are ﬂying focus focused or focussed (both correct) focusing or focussing (both correct) for- or fore-? A useful rule of thumb is to remember the usual meaning of the preﬁxes: FIERY. 77 FORBEAR OR FOREBEAR? FOR- = not, or something negative (forbid, forfeit, forget, forsake) FORE- = before (foreboding, forecast, forefathers) See individual entries for FORBEAR OR FOREBEAR? FOREWORD OR FORWARD?. forbear or forebear? FORBEAR (stress on second syllable) = restrain oneself FORBEAR or FOREBEAR (stress on ﬁrst syllable) = ancestor forbid forbad or forbade (both correct), forbidden, forbidding forcible (not -able) forecast (not forcast) forefend/forfend Either spelling can be used. foregather/forgather Either spelling can be used. forego/forgo Either spelling can be used. foreign An exception to the rule. See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. foreign plurals Some foreign words in English have retained their foreign plurals. Some have both foreign and English plurals. Take care, however, with the words that are asterisked below because the foreign plural of these is used in a diﬀerent sense from the English plural. Check these words under individual entries for the distinction in meaning. singular -a alga antenna formula larva nebula vertebra 78 foreign plural algae antennae formulae larvae nebulae vertebrae English plural – antennas* formulas* – nebulas vertebras FOREIGN PLURALS singular -eau -eu adieu bureau chateau milieu plateau tableau foreign plural English plural adieux bureaux chateaux milieux plateaux tableaux adieus bureaus – milieus plateaus – singular -ex -ix appendix index matrix vortex appendices indices matrices vortices appendixes* indexes* matrixes vortexes singular -is analysis axis crisis diagnosis hypothesis parenthesis synopsis analyses axes crises diagnoses hypotheses parentheses synopses – – – – – – – singular -o graﬃto libretto tempo virtuoso graﬃti libretti tempi virtuosi – librettos tempos virtuosos singular -on automaton criterion ganglion phenomenon automata criteria ganglia phenomena automatons – ganglions – singular -um aquarium bacterium curriculum datum erratum memorandum millennium referendum stratum ultimatum aquaria bacteria curricula data errata memoranda millennia referenda strata ultimata aquariums – curriculums – – memorandums millenniums referendums – ultimatums 79 FORESAKE singular -um ovum foreign plural English plural ova – singular -us bacillus cactus fungus hippopotamus nucleus radius stimulus syllabus terminus tumulus bacilli cacti fungi hippopotami nuclei radii stimuli syllabi termini tumuli – cactuses funguses hippopotamuses – radiuses – syllabuses terminuses – The Hebrew plural -im is found in these three words: cherub kibbutz seraph cherubim kibbutzim seraphim cherubs – – This list is by no means comprehensive but it does contain most of the words that are commonly used. foresake Wrong spelling. See forest (not forrest) FORSAKE. foreword or forward? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: The Poet Laureate had written a FOREWORD for the new anthology. I am looking FORWARD to the holiday. Will you please FORWARD this letter? forfeit (not -ie-, exception to the rule) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. forfend See FOREFEND/FORFEND. forgather See FOREGATHER/FORGATHER. forgo See FOREGO/FORGO. formally or formerly? FORMALLY = in a formal manner FORMERLY = previously, at an earlier time 80 FUCHSIA formula (singular) There are two plurals. Use formulae in a scientiﬁc or mathematical context. Use formulas in all other cases. forrest Wrong spelling. See forsake (not fore-) See FOR OR FORE?. fortunately fortunate + ly (not -atly) See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). forty (not fourty) forward See FOREST. FOREWORD OR FORWARD?. frantic frantically frantic + ally (not franticly) freind Wrong spelling. See frequent (not -ant) Use as an adjective (stress on ﬁrst syllable): FRIEND. There were FREQUENT interruptions. Use as a verb (stress on second syllable): They FREQUENT the most terrible pubs. fresco (singular) frescoes or frescos (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. friend (not -ei-) frieze (not -ei-) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. frighten frightened, frightening (not frightend, frightning) frolic frolicked, frolicking, frolicsome See SOFT C AND SOFT G. fuchsia (named after Leonhard Fuchs, German botanist) 81 -FUL -ful When full is used as an ending to a word, it is always spelt -ful: beautiful careful wonderful hopeful, etc. fulﬁl fulﬁlled, fulﬁlling, fulﬁlment See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). full stops See See END STOPS. COMMAS (b). fungus (singular) fungi or funguses (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. further See fuschia Wrong spelling. See 82 FARTHER OR FURTHER?. FUCHSIA. G gay + ety – an exception to the y rule See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). gaily gay + ly – an exception to the y rule See ADDING ENDINGS (iii). gallop galloped, galloping (not -pp-) See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). ganglion (singular) ganglia or ganglions (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. gaol An alternative spelling is ‘jail’. garage gastly Wrong spelling. See gateau (singular) genealogical generosity generous GHASTLY. gateaus or gateaux (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. (not guage) (not geneo-) TE gauge AM FL Y gaiety (not -ous-) get they get, have got, are getting ghastly (not gastly) gipsy/gypsy Both spellings are correct. gipsies or gypsies (plural) See PLURALS (iii). glamorous (not -our-) glamour good will or goodwill? Always write as one word when referring to the prestige and trading value of a business. 83 GORGEOUS He bought the GOODWILL for ﬁve thousand pounds. Use either two words or one word when referring to general feelings of kindness and support. As a gesture of GOOD WILL, she cancelled the ﬁne. gorgeous (not -gous) See SOFT C AND SOFT G. gorilla or guerilla? A GORILLA is an animal. A GUERILLA is a revolutionary ﬁghter. gossip gossiped, gossiping (not -pp) See ADDING ENDINGS (iv). gourmand or gourmet? A GOURMAND is greedy and overindulges where ﬁne food is concerned. A GOURMET is a connoisseur of ﬁne food. government (not goverment as it is often mispronounced) governor (not -er) gradual gradually gradual + ly (not gradully) graﬃti This is increasingly used in a general sense (like the word ‘writing’) and its plural force is forgotten when it comes to matching it with a verb: There was GRAFFITI all over the wall. A few conservative writers would like a plural verb (There were GRAFFITI all over the wall). graﬃto (singular) 84 graﬃti (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. GUTTURAL grammar (not -er) gramophone (not grama-) grandad/granddad Both spellings are correct. grandchild granddaughter grandfather grandma grandmother grandparent grandson grate or great? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: The ﬁre was burning brightly in the GRATE. GRATE the potato coarsely. Christopher Wren was a GREAT architect. grateful (not greatful) grief (not -ei-) grievance (not -ence) grievous (not -ious) grotto (singular) grottoes or grottos (plural) guage Wrong spelling. See GAUGE. guarantee guardian guess guest guttural (not -er-) 85 H hadn’t (not had’nt) haemorrhage (not -rh-) half (singular) halves (plural) See PLURALS (v). halo (singular) haloes or halos (plural) See PLURALS (iv). handkerchief (singular) handkerchiefs (plural) (not -nk-) See PLURALS (v). hanged or hung? People are HANGED. Things like clothes and pictures are HUNG. happen happened, happening (not -nn-) harass (not -rr-) hardly See hasn’t (not has’nt) haven’t (not have’nt) headquarters (not headquaters) hear or here? You HEAR with your ear. DOUBLE NEGATIVES. Use HERE to indicate place: Come over HERE. heard or herd? We HEARD their voices outside. We photographed the HERD of deer. heifer See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. height See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. heinous See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. herd See HEARD OR HERD?. 86 HISTORIC OR HISTORICAL? here See hero (singular) heroes (plural) See PLURALS (iv). heroin or heroine? HEROIN is a drug. A HEROINE is a female hero. hers No apostrophe is needed. HEAR OR HERE?. This is mine; this is HERS. HERS has a yellow handle. hiccough or hiccup? Both words are pronounced ‘hiccup’ and either spelling can be used. The second spelling (hiccup) is more usual. hiccup hiccuped, hiccuping (not -pp-) hieroglyphics high-tech or hi-tec? Both spellings are correct for the adjective derived from high technology: A HI-TEC factory A HIGH-TECH computer system Without the hyphen, each word can be used as a noun replacing ‘high technology’: A generation familiar with HIGH TECH The latest development in HI TEC hindrance (not hinderance) hippopotamus (singular) hippopotami or hippopotamuses (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. historic or historical? HISTORIC means famous in history, memorable, or likely to go down in recorded history: a HISTORIC meeting HISTORICAL means existing in the past or representing something that could have happened in the past: 87 HOARD OR HORDE? a HISTORICAL novel a HISTORICAL fact Note It would not be wrong to say or write an historic meeting, an historical novel, an historical fact. However, this usage of an before words like hotel, historic and historical is becoming much less common, now that the h beginning these words is usually voiced. hoard or horde? To HOARD is to save something in a secret place. A HOARD is a secret store. A HORDE is a large group of people, insects or animals. hoarse or horse? HOARSE means croaky, sore or rough (a HOARSE whisper). HORSE is an animal. hole or whole? Use these exemplar sentences as a guide: She ate the WHOLE cake by herself. You have a HOLE in your sock. homeoepathy/ homeopathy Both spellings are correct. honest (not onnist or honist) honorary (Note: this word has four syllables not three.) An HONORARY secretary of an association is one who works voluntarily and receives no payment. honour honourable hoof (singular) hoofs or hooves (plural) See PLURALS (v). hoping or hopping? hope + ing = hoping hop + ing = hopping See ADDING ENDINGS (i) and (ii). horde See 88 HOARD OR HORDE?. HYPERTHERMIA OR HYPOTHERMIA? horrible (not -able) horse human or humane? See HOARSE OR HORSE?. HUMAN beings are naturally competitive. There must be a more HUMANE way of slaughtering animals. humour humorous (not humourous) humourless hundred (not hundered) hung See hygiene (not -ei-) See EI/IE SPELLING RULE. hyper- or hypo-? The preﬁx ‘hyper’ comes from a Greek word meaning ‘over’, ‘beyond’. Hence we have words like these: HANGED OR HUNG?. hyperactive (= abnormally active) hypermarket (= a very large self-service store) hypersensitive (= unusually sensitive) The preﬁx ‘hypo’ comes from a Greek word meaning ‘under’. Hence we have words like these: hypochondria (the melancholy associated with obsession with one’s health was originally believed to originate in the organs beneath the ribs) hypodermic (= under the skin) hypercritical or hypocritical? HYPERCRITICAL = excessively critical HYPOCRITICAL = disguising one’s true nature under a pretence of being better than you really are See HYPER- OR HYPO-?. hyperthermia or hypothermia? HYPERTHERMIA = having an abnormally high body temperature HYPOTHERMIA = having an abnormally low body temperature See HYPER- OR HYPO-?. 89 HYPERVENTILATE OR HYPOVENTILATE hyperventilate or hypoventilate HYPERVENTILATE = to breathe at an abnormally rapid rate HYPOVENTILATE = to breathe at an abnormally slow rate See HYPER- OR HYPO-?. hyphens (i) Hyphens are used to indicate wordbreaks where there is not space to complete a word at the end of a line. Take care to divide the word at an appropriate point between syllables so that your reader is not confused and can continue smoothly from the ﬁrst part of the word to the second part. There are dictionaries of hyphenation available that will indicate sensible places to break words. They don’t always agree with each other! You will also notice a diﬀerence in practice between British English and American English. Increasingly, however, the trend is towards American English practice, i.e. being guided by the way the word is pronounced. Break the word in such a way as to preserve the overall pronunciation as far as possible. It is really a matter of common sense. For this reason you will avoid breaking: father legend therapist manslaughter notable into into into into into fat-her leg-end the-rapist mans-laughter not-able and so on! Note: that the hyphen should be placed at the end of the ﬁrst line (to indicate that the word is to be continued). It is not repeated at the beginning of the next. 90 HYPHENS The children shouted enthusiastically as they raced towards the sea. If you are breaking a word that is already hyphenated, break it at the existing hyphen: Both my parents are extremely absentminded. Breaking a word always makes it look temporarily unfamiliar. You will notice that in printed books for very young readers word-breaks are always carefully avoided. Ideally, you also will try to avoid them. Anticipate how much space a word requires at the end of a line and start a new line if necessary. Whatever happens, avoid breaking a word very close to its beginning or its end, and never break a one-syllabled word. (ii) Hyphens are used to join compound numbers between 21 and 99: twenty-one ﬁfty-ﬁve ninety-nine twenty-ﬁve ﬁfty-ﬁfth ninety-ninth Hyphens are also used to join fractions when they are written as words: three-quarters ﬁve-ninths (iii) Hyphens are used to join compound words so that they become one word: my son-in-law a twenty-pound note her happy-go-lucky smile You will sometimes need to check in a dictionary whether a word is 91 HYPOCRISY hyphenated or not. Sometimes words written separately in a ten-year-old dictionary will be hyphenated in a more modern one; sometimes words hyphenated in an older dictionary will now be written as one word. Is it washing machine or washingmachine, wash-basin or washbasin, print-out or printout? Such words need to be checked individually. (iv) Hyphens are used with some preﬁxes: co-author, ex-wife, anti-censorship Check individual words in a dictionary If you are in doubt. Always use a hyphen when you are using a preﬁx before a word that begins with a capital letter: pro-British, anti-Christian, un-American Sometimes a hyphen is used for the sake of clarity. There is a diﬀerence in meaning between the words in these pairs: re-cover and recover re-form and reform co-respondent and correspondent (v) Hyphens are also used to indicate a range of ﬁgures or dates: There were 12 - 20 people in the room. He was killed in the 1914 - 18 war. hypocrisy (not -asy) hypocrite hypocritical See HYPERCRITICAL OR HYPOCRITICAL?. hypothermia See HYPERTHERMIA OR HYPOTHERMIA?. 92 HYPOVENTILATE hypothesis (singular) hypotheses (plural) See FOREIGN PLURALS. hypoventilate See TE AM FL Y HYPERVENTILATE OR HYPOVENTILATE?. 93 I I/me/myself These three words are pronouns and cause a great deal of confusion. (i) Most people use the pronoun ‘I’ correctly when it is used on its own: I I I I I love cats. like chocolate. mow the lawn every Sunday. am trying to lose weight. have two sisters. Confusion generally arises with phrases like ‘my husband and I’ and ‘my husband and me’. Which should it be? The simplest method is to break the sentence into two and see whether ‘I’ or ‘me’ sound right: My husband likes chocolate. I like chocolate. MY HUSBAND AND I like chocolate. (ii) Most people use the pronoun ‘me’ correctly when it is used on its own: The burglar threatened ME. It was given to ME. Once again confusion arises when a pair is involved. The advice remains the same. Break the sentence into two and see whether ‘I’ or ‘me’ sounds right: The burglar threatened my husband. The burglar threatened ME. The burglar threatened MY HUSBAND AND ME. 94 IDEA OR IDEAL? It was given to my husband. It was given to ME. It was given to MY HUSBAND AND ME. (iii) The pronoun ‘myself’ has two distinct functions. " It can be used in constructions like this where it is essential to the sense: I cut MYSELF yesterday. I did it by MYSELF. " It can be used to help emphasise a point. In these cases, it can be omitted without changing the overall sense: I’ll wrap the parcel MYSELF. MYSELF, I would disagree. ‘Myself’ should never be used as a substitute for ‘I’ or ‘me’. My friend and myself had a wonderful time in Austria. My friend and I had a wonderful time. They presented my brother and myself with a silver cup. They presented my brother and me with a silver cup. This is from Henry and myself. This is from Henry and me. -ible See -ABLE/-IBLE. idea or ideal? Bristolians have particular diﬃculty distinguishing between these two because of the intrusive Bristol ‘l’. These exemplar sentences should help: Your IDEA is brilliant. This is an IDEAL spot for a picnic. His IDEALS prevent him from eating meat. 95 IDIOSYNCRASY idiosyncrasy (not -cy) -ie- See illegible or ineligible? ILLEGIBLE = not able to be read INELIGIBLE = not properly qualiﬁed illusion See imaginary or imaginative? IMAGINARY = existing only in the imagination IMAGINATIVE = showing or having a vivid imagination, being creative, original imformation Wrong spelling. See immediately (not immeadiately or immediatly) immense immensely (not immensly) immigrant See EMIGRANT OR IMMIGRANT?. imminent See EMINENT, OR IMMINENT?. immoral See AMORAL OR IMMORAL?. implicit See EXPLICIT OR IMPLICIT?. imply or infer? To IMPLY something is to hint at it: EI/IE SPELLING RULE. ALLUSION, DELUSION OR ILLUSION?. INFORMATION. She IMPLIED that there were strong moral objections to his appointment but didn’t say so in so many words. To INFER is to draw a conclusion: Am I to INFER from what you say that he is unsuitabl