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English Vocabulary in Use: Advanced Book with Answers and Enhanced eBook Vocabulary Reference and Practice 3rd Edition

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’ e

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English Vocabulary Profi le correlation shows which words and

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meanings are known by learners at what level, so you can prioritize er



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ENGLISH

VOCABULARY

Vocabulary

reference and

practice

with answers

IN USE

and ebook

Third Edition

Advanced

Michael McCarthy

Felicity O’Dell





University Printing House, Cambridge CB2 8BS, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, NY 10006, USA

477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, VIC 3207, Australia

4843/24, 2nd Floor, Ansari Road, Daryaganj, Delhi – 110002, India 79 Anson Road, #06–04/06, Singapore 079906

Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge.

It furthers the University’s mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning and research at the highest international levels of excellence.

www.cambridge.org

Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/elt

© Cambridge University Press 2017

This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception

and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written

permission of Cambridge University Press.

First published 2002

Third Edition 2017

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Printed in Dubai by Oriental Press

A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library ISBN 978-131663006-8 Edition with answers and ebook

ISBN 978-131663117-1 Edition with answers

ISBN 978-131663118-8 ebook

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. Information regarding prices, travel timetables, and other factual information given in this work is correct at the time of first printing but Cambridge University Press does not guarantee the accuracy of such information thereafter.





Contents

Thanks

5

Travel

Introduction

6

25 On the road: traffic and driving

56

Work and study

26 Travel and accommodation

58

1 Cramming for success: study and

27 Attracting tourists

60

academic work

8

The environment

2 Education: debates and issues

10

28 Describing the world

62

3 Applying for a job

12

29 Weather and climate

64

4 Job interviews

14

30 Brick walls and glass ceilings

66

5 At work: colleagues and routines

16

31 Taking root and reaping rewards

68

6 At work: job satisfaction

18

32 The animal kingdom

70

7 At work: careers

20

33 Our endangered world

72

People and relationships

Society and institutions

8 Describing people: positive and

negative qualities

22

34 Here to help: customer service

74

9 Describing people: appearance

35 Authorities: customs and police

76

and mannerisms 24

36 Beliefs

78

10 Describing people: personality and

37 Festivals in their cultural context

80

character traits

26

38 Talking about language

82

11 Relationships: friends forever

28

39 History: since the dawn of civilisation 84

12 Relationships: ups and downs

30

40 The haves and the have-nots

86

13 Emotions and reactions

32

41 British politics

88

14 Negative feelings

34

42 International politics

90

15 Birth and death: from cradle to grave 36

43 The letter of the law

92

Leisure and lifestyle

44 War and peace

94

16 Free time: relaxation and leisure

38

45 Economy and finance

96

17 All the rage: clothes and fashion

40

46 Personal finance: making ends

meet 98

18 Home styles, lifestyles

42

19 Socialising and networking

44

The media

20 The performance arts: reviews

47 The media: in print

100

and critiques 46

48 The media: internet and email

102

21 The visual arts

48

49 Advertising

104

22 Talking about books

50

50 The news: gathering and

23 Food: a recipe for disaster

52

delivering 106

24 Dinner’s on me: entertaining and

eating out

54

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

3

Health

79 Academic writing: making sense 164

51 Healthcare

108

80 Academic writing: text structure 166

52 Illness: feeling under the weather 110

81 Writing: style and format

168

53 Medical language

112

82 Whatchamacallit: being indirect 170

54 Diet, sport and fitness

114

83 Give or take: more vague

expressions 172

Technology

84 The way you say it

174

55 Industries: from manufacturing

to service 116

Words and meanings

56 Technology and its impact

118

85 Abbreviations and acronyms

176

57 Technology of the future

120

86 Prefixes: creating new meanings 178

58 Energy: from fossil fuels to

87 Suffixes: forming new words

180

windmills 122

88 Word-building and

Basic concepts

word-blending 182

59 Space: no room to swing a cat

124

89 English: a global language

184

60 Time: once in a blue moon

126

90 Easily confused words

186

61 Motion: taking steps

128

91 One word, many meanings

188

62 Manner: behaviour and body

Fixed expressions and

language 130

figurative language

63 Sounds: listen up!

132

92 Collocation: which words go

64 Weight and density

134

together 190

65 All the colours of the rainbow

136

93 Metaphor: seeing the light

192

66 Speed: fast and slow

138

94 Idioms for everyday situations

and feelings 194

67 Cause and effect

140

95 Brushing up on phrasal verbs

196

68 Spot the difference: making

comparisons 142

96 Connotation: making associations 198

69 Difficulties and dilemmas

144

Language variation

70 Modality: expressing facts,

97 Register: degrees of formality

200

opinions, desires 146

98 Divided by a common language 202

71 Number: statistics and quantity 148

99 Language and gender

204

Functional vocabulary

100 In the headlines

206

72 Permission: getting the go-ahead 150

101 Red tape

208

73 Complaining and protesting

152

Answer key

210

74 Apology, regret and reconciliation 154

75 A pat on the back: complimenting

Phonemic symbols

276

and praising

156

Index

76

277

Promises and bets

158

77 Reminiscences and regrets

160

Acknowledgements

299

78 Agreement, disagreement

Enhanced ebook

301

and compromise 162

4

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced





Thanks and ackno

Thanks

wledgements

Joy Godwin wrote two units for the Third Edition: Unit 3, Applying for a job, and Unit 4, Job interviews. The publishers would like to thank Joy for her contribution to this edition.

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

5





Introduction

To the student

This book has been written to help you expand your vocabulary at the advanced level. You already know thousands of English words, but to express yourself fully and in a sophisticated way at the advanced level, you will ideally need between 6,000 and 8,000 words, so increasing your vocabulary is very important for your general progress in English, as well as for any academic, professional or vocational needs you may have where English plays an important role. At the advanced level, as well as learning new words, you will need to learn more about the subtle connotations of words, aspects of register and style and how words combine into collocations, compounds and fixed phrases. In this book, there are over 3,000 new words and expressions for you to learn. You will find them on the left-hand page of each unit. Every new word or phrase is used in a sentence, or in a conversation, or is in a table, or has a picture with it, or has some explanation of what it means. On the right-hand page there are exercises and other activities to help you practise using the words and to help you to remember them. Where our research shows that learners frequently make errors, we give you advice on how to avoid the most common ones, as well as other useful language tips. The book has been written so that you can use it yourself, without a teacher. You can do the units in any order you like, but we have grouped them into themes, so you might wish to work through several units on a particular area of vocabulary before moving to a new one.

The Answer key at the end of the book is for you to check your answers to the exercises after you do them. The key sometimes has more than one answer. This is because often there is not just one correct way of saying something. Where you are asked to talk about yourself, in the Over to you activities, we do not provide answers, since this is your opportunity to work completely independently and in a very personal way, so everyone’s answer will be very different.

The Index at the end of the book has all the important words and phrases from the left-hand pages.

The Index also tells you how to pronounce words. There is a table of phonemic symbols to help you understand the pronunciation on page 276.

You should also have a dictionary with you when you use the book. You can use a paper dictionary, an electronic one, or you can go to Cambridge Dictionaries Online at http://dictionary.cambridge.org.

Access to a dictionary is useful because sometimes you may want to check the meaning of something or find a word in your own language to help you remember the English word. Sometimes, you will also need a dictionary for the exercises; we tell you when this is so.

To learn a lot of vocabulary, you have to do two things:

1 Study each unit of the book carefully and do all the exercises. Check your answers in the key.

Repeat the units after a month, and then again after three months, and see how much you have learnt and how much you have forgotten. Repeating work is very important.

2 Develop ways of your own to study and learn new words and phrases which are not in this book. For example, every time you see or hear an interesting phrase, write it in a notebook, and write who said it or wrote it, and in what situation, as well as what it means. Making notes of the situations words are used in will help you to remember them and to use them at the right moment.

We hope you like this book. You can also go to the other books in the series which have more specialised titles: English Idioms in Use, English Phrasal Verbs in Use and English Collocations in Use, which are available at advanced level, as well as Academic Vocabulary in Use. Find out more at the Vocabulary in Use website: www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse.

6

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

To the teacher

This book can be used in class or as a self-study book. It is intended to take learners from an upper-intermediate level of vocabulary to an advanced level. The vocabulary has been chosen for its usefulness in everyday situations, and we consulted the Cambridge English Corpus, a billion-word-plus written and spoken corpus of present-day English which includes a huge learner corpus, to help us decide on the words and phrases to be included and to help us understand the typical problems learners encounter at the advanced level. We also consulted the English Vocabulary Profile to make sure that the words in the book are a representative sample of vocabulary that is typical of the Common European Framework levels C1 and C2. Visit the English Vocabulary Profile at www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse.

At the advanced level, as well as learning a large number of new words and expressions, learners are often directing their efforts towards academic, professional or vocational needs, and so we have tried to offer a modern, sophisticated vocabulary that will underpin their work in other areas.

The new vocabulary (on average 40 items per unit) is presented with explanations on the left-hand page, and there are exercises and activities on the right-hand page. There is an Answer key and an Index with pronunciation for all the target vocabulary. The key at the end of the book is for students to check their answers to the exercises after they do them. The key sometimes has more than one answer. This is because often there is not just one correct way of saying something. Where students are asked to talk about themselves, in the Over to you activities, we do not provide answers, since this gives learners the opportunity to work completely independently and in a very personal way, so everyone’s answer will be very different.

The book focuses not just on single words, but on useful phrases and collocations, and the vocabulary is illustrated in natural contexts. The book is organised around everyday topics, but also has units devoted to basic concepts such as time, modality, manner and varieties and style. Typical errors are indicated where appropriate, based on information from the Cambridge Learner Corpus, and the most typical meanings and uses are focused on for each key item.

The right-hand pages offer a variety of different types of activities, some traditional ones such as gap-filling, but also more open-ended ones and personalised activities which enable learners to talk about their own lives. Although the activities and exercises are designed for self-study, they can be easily adapted for pairwork, groupwork or whole-class activities in the usual way.

When the learners have worked through a group of units, it is a good idea to repeat some of the work (for example, the exercises) and to expand on the meaning and use of key words and phrases by extra discussion in class, and find other examples of the key items in other texts and situations. This can be done at intervals of one to three months after first working on a unit. This is important, since it is usually the case that a learner needs five to seven exposures to a word or phrase before they can really begin to know it, and no single book can do enough to ensure that words are always learnt first time. It is especially important at the advanced level to discuss in detail the meanings and uses of words and phrases and how they combine and collocate with one another.

Your students can also consult the more specialised higher level books in this series: the advanced levels of English Idioms in Use, English Phrasal Verbs in Use and English Collocations in Use, or they may wish to work on academic vocabulary by using Academic Vocabulary in Use, all by the same authors as this book. They can also test themselves on the knowledge they have gained from this and the other books in the series by using the separate books of tests that accompany the series.

You can find out more at the Vocabulary in Use website: www.cambridge.org/elt/inuse.

We hope you enjoy using the book.

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

7





Cramming for success: study and

1 academic work

A

Study and exams

1 study in a very concentrated way

Before an exam, some students cram1

for a short time

for it. Even if you’re a genius2, you’ll

2 an exceptionally clever person

have to do some revision. If the exam

3 exam papers from previous years

happens every year, you can revise by

4 learning purely by repetition

looking at past papers3. Some things

5

can be memorised or learnt (off ) by

/niˈmɒnɪks/ tricks that help

heart

you remember something, for

. But rote-learning4 is not suff icient

example: ‘i’ before ‘e’ except aft er

for most subjects. It is also possible to

‘c’ is a mnemonic for English

use mnemonics5. However, all things

spelling (e.g. friend, but receive)

considered, the best idea is to bury

6 spend the maximum time

yourself in your books6 and to study

studying

intensively7 until you know the subject

7 in a very focused way

inside out8.

8 know it completely

B

Academic writing

composition could be just 50–100 words, oft en used for school work essay longer than a composition, more serious, hundreds or thousands of words assignment a long essay, oft en part of a course, usually thousands of words project like an assignment, but emphasis on student’s own material and topic portfolio a collection of individual pieces of work; may include drawings and other examples of creative work as well as writing

dissertation a long, research-based work, perhaps 10–15,000 words, for a degree or diploma thesis a very long, original, research-based work, perhaps 80–100,000 words, for a higher degree (e.g. PhD) It’s a good idea to start with a mind map1 when preparing an essay. Always write a first draft 2

before writing up the final version. Your essay should be all your own work; plagiarism3 is a very serious off ence in colleges and universities. It is an increasing problem because it is so easy to cut and paste from materials available on the internet, and students have to sign a plagiarism form to say that the work they are handing in is all their own and that they acknowledge4 any sources they have used. There is usually a deadline5. Aft er the essay is submitted6, it will be assessed7

and usually you can get feedback8.

1 diagram that lays out ideas for a topic and how they are connected to one another 2 first, rough version 3 /pledərzəm/ using other people’s work as if it was yours 4 give details of 5 date by which you must hand in the work 6 handed in; formal 7 evaluated and given a grade 8 comments from the teacher/tutor C

Aspects of higher academic study

1 less formal is do research

2 magazines with academic

HOME FACULTY RESEARCH

articles (we do not use

University academics carry out research1 and are expected to read academic the word magazine to talk

journals2, which publish papers/articles on specialised subjects. If a library about this kind of academic

does not have a copy of a book or journal, you may be able to access it online3

publication)

or you can usually get it through an inter-library loan4. Open educational 3 get hold of (it) on the internet

resources5 are particularly convenient for many students. Academic study can 4 system where libraries

be very demanding, and some students drop out6, but the majority survive till

exchange books/journals with

finals7 and become well-qualified8 members of their future professions.

one another

5 online materials that can be freely used by teachers and students anywhere 6 leave the course before the end 7 last exams before the end of a college or university course 8 with the right formal qualifications 8

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced



Exer

Ex cises

er

1.1 Correct the wrong usage of words to do with written work in these sentences.

1 His PhD assignment was 90,000 words long and was on the history of US place names.

2 Little Martha did her first dissertation in school today. It was called ‘My family’.

3 We have to hand in an essay at the end of the course. It can consist of up to five different pieces of work.

4 The teacher gave us the title of this week’s project today. We have to write 1,000 words on the topic of ‘If I ruled the world’ and hand it in next Monday.

5 At the end of this course, you have to do a 5,000-word thesis which will be assessed, and the grade will contribute to your final degree.

6 I think I’ll do a study of people’s personal banking habits for my MSc composition. It has to be about 12,000 words.

7 I’ve chosen to do the portfolio instead of the two exams, because I like to do one single piece of work where I can research something that interests me personally.

1.2 Rewrite this text using words and phrases from the opposite page instead of the underlined words.

When I’m studying in a very focused way because I’m preparing

hard for an exam, I don’t see any point in looking up exam papers from previous years, nor is there any point in just learning things by memory. I know some people develop very clever memory tricks

to help them remember the material, but there’s no real substitute for rereading and going over the term’s work. It’s a good idea to have some sort of diagram showing different ideas to organise your thoughts, and memory-learning is useful, but in a limited way. At the end of the day, you just have to read a huge amount until you feel you know the subject 100%.

1.3 Answer these questions.

1 What do we call the first attempt at writing something, e.g. an essay?

2 What word means ‘the date by which you must do something’?

3 What word means ‘using someone else’s ideas as if they were yours’?

4 What are more formal words for ‘to hand in’ and for ‘to mark’?

5 What phrasal verb do we use when someone doesn’t complete their course?

6 What is another word for an academic article? Where can you read them?

7 What is the name of the system for getting books from other libraries?

8 What word means ‘the comments you get back from the teacher about your work’?

9 What word can you use for a person who is extraordinarily intelligent?



10 What is a more formal way of saying ‘do research’?

1.4 Choose the best word from the opposite page to complete these sentences.

1 If you quote an article in an essay, you must

your source, giving details of author

and title.

2 Open educational

can be particularly useful for students who do not have easy

access to a university library.

3 How much

have you done for tomorrow’s maths exam?

4 Don’t forget to sign the

form and hand it in with your dissertation.

5 Some people take a long time to find suitable work even though they are very

.

6 Orla has had a

published in the British Medical Journal.

7 All students need a username and password to be able to

journals online.

8 Caspar is bound to do well in his mechanics exam – he knows the subject out.

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

9

2 Education: debates and issues

A

Opportunity and equality

All education systems may ultimately be judged in terms of equality of opportunity1. This is often referred to in the debates over selective2 versus comprehensive3 schooling4. The main issue is whether everyone has the same opportunities for educational achievement or whether elitism5 of one sort or another is inherent in6 the system.

League tables7 for schools and colleges may actually help unintentionally to perpetuate8

inequalities, while claiming to promote the raising of standards. Inevitably, league tables divide educational institutions into good and bad, success and failure, resulting in a two-tier system9, or at least that is how the public perceives10 it. The ability of better-off11 parents and well-endowed12 schools to push children towards the institutions at the top of the league may, in the long term, have the effect of depressing13 opportunity for the less well-off14 or for children from home environments that do not provide the push and motivation to excel15.

Financial support of different kinds can help to make educational opportunity more equal. There are, for example, scholarships16 or bursaries17 that make it possible for less privileged youngsters to afford tertiary18 education. Student loans19 allow undergraduates20 to pay for their tuition fees21 and living expenses while they are studying. But few would claim that real equality of opportunity has been achieved.

1 when everyone has the same chances

11 richer

2 pupils are chosen for entry, usually for academic reasons,

12 receiving a lot of money in grants, gifts from

though, in the case of some private schools, parents’

rich people, etc. [= endowments]

ability to pay school fees may be a factor in selection

13 reducing

3 everyone enters without exams and education is free,

14 poorer

paid for by the government

15 achieve an excellent standard

4 education received at school

16 money given to pay for studies, usually provided

5 when you favour a small, privileged group

on the basis of academic merit

6 existing as a basic part of something

17 money given to pay for studies, usually provided

7 lists of schools or colleges, from the best down to

on the basis of need

the worst, based on exam results and, sometimes,

18 education at university or college level

other criteria

19 money that students can borrow from a bank while

8 make something continue

studying and then pay back once they are in work

9 a system with two separate levels, one of which is

20 students doing a first degree [postgraduates =

better than the other

students doing a further degree]

10 sees, considers

21 money paid to receive teaching

B

Other debates and issues

Language help

Some people think we should return to an

emphasis on the three Rs, the traditional,

Notice how compound adjectives like well-off,

basic skills. [reading, writing and arithmetic]

well-endowed, high-achieving, badly-performing can be Literacy and numeracy are skills no one

used in comparative and superlative forms, e.g. better-off,

can afford to be without. [the ability to read]

best-endowed, higher-achieving, worst-performing.

[the ability to count / do basic maths]

Curriculum reform is often done for

political reasons rather than for good educational ones.

[changes to what is covered in the national syllabus = plan of what is to be studied]

Nowadays, lifelong/continuing education is an issue, and creating opportunities for mature students is important. [education for all ages] [adult students older than the average student]

Special needs education is expensive because class sizes need to be small or one-to-one. [education for children who cannot learn in the normal way, because they have some disability] [one teacher and one pupil, not a group]

Children are unhappy at school if there is a lot of bullying. [threatening behaviour]

Some headteachers complain that getting to grips with constant new government guidelines on what schools should be doing is a distraction from what they ought to be focusing on. [advice (often official) on how something should be done] [takes attention away]

10

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

Exercises

A

Opportunity and equality

2.1 Complete the collocations by filling in the missing words according to the meaning given in brackets.

All education systems may ultimately be judged in terms of equality of opportunity1. This is often 1

tables (lists of schools from best to worst)

referred to in the debates over selective2 versus comprehensive3 schooling4. The main issue is 2

education (entry to schools is decided by exam results)

whether everyone has the same opportunities for educational achievement or whether elitism5 of 3 equality of

(when everyone has the same chances)

one sort or another is inherent in6 the system.

4

inequalities (make inequalities continue)

5

education (at university or college level)

League tables7 for schools and colleges may actually help unintentionally to perpetuate8

inequalities, while claiming to promote the raising of standards. Inevitably, league tables divide 2.2 Rewrite these sentences so they are more formal by using words and phrases from educational institutions into good and bad, success and failure, resulting in a two-tier system9, the opposite page instead of the underlined words. Make any other changes that or at least that is how the public perceives10 it. The ability of better-off11 parents and well-are necessary.

endowed12 schools to push children towards the institutions at the top of the league may, in the 1 Inequality is built into the education system.

long term, have the effect of depressing13 opportunity for the less well-off14 or for children from 2 Giving access only to privileged groups is bad for the country in the long term.

home environments that do not provide the push and motivation to excel15.

3 Education where everyone gets into the same type of school without exams is a basic political Financial support of different kinds can help to make educational opportunity more equal. There ideal in many countries.

are, for example, scholarships16 or bursaries17 that make it possible for less privileged youngsters 4 A system where there are two levels of schools reduces the opportunities for children from poorer to afford tertiary18 education. Student loans19 allow undergraduates20 to pay for their tuition families and favours those from richer families.

fees21 and living expenses while they are studying. But few would claim that real equality of 5 Some private schools have lots of wealth and receive gifts of money, and this means they can have opportunity has been achieved.

better resources.

6 All parents want their children to achieve the best possible results at school.

1 when everyone has the same chances

11 richer

12

7 Emphasis on the three Rs is considered by parents to be the key to success.

2 pupils are chosen for entry, usually for academic reasons,

receiving a lot of money in grants, gifts from

8 The government is increasing its provision for education that young people can enter after though, in the case of some private schools, parents’

rich people, etc. [= endowments]

ability to pay school fees may be a factor in selection

13

finishing secondary school.

reducing

3 everyone enters without exams and education is free,

14 poorer

paid for by the government

15

2.3 Correct these statements about words or expressions from the opposite page. Correct achieve an excellent standard

4 education received at school

16

each of them twice – once by changing the definition and once by changing the word money given to pay for studies, usually provided

5 when you favour a small, privileged group

on the basis of academic merit

being defined.

6 existing as a basic part of something

17 money given to pay for studies, usually provided

1 One-to-one education is another way of saying continuing education.

7 lists of schools or colleges, from the best down to

on the basis of need

18

One-to-one education means a situation where there is one teacher and one student.

the worst, based on exam results and, sometimes,

education at university or college level

19

Lifelong education is another way of saying continuing education.

other criteria

money that students can borrow from a bank while

8 make something continue

studying and then pay back once they are in work

2 Numeracy refers to the ability to read.

9 a system with two separate levels, one of which is

20 students doing a first degree [postgraduates =

3 A student who is doing a doctorate is an undergraduate.

better than the other

students doing a further degree]

4 Excelling is when a pupil uses frightening or threatening behaviour towards another child who is 10 sees, considers

21 money paid to receive teaching

smaller or less powerful in some way.

5 Tertiary education is the stage that follows primary education.

B

Other debates and issues

6 Comprehensive schools choose the best students to study there.

Some people think we should return to an

7 Guidelines list schools from good to bad according to their exam results.

emphasis on the three Rs, the traditional,

2.4 Complete each sentence with a word from the opposite page.

basic skills. [reading, writing and arithmetic]

Literacy and numeracy are skills no one

1 Matt won a

because of his excellent academic record.

can afford to be without. [the ability to read]

2 Zara’s parents said that starting a rock band with her friends would be too much of a



[the ability to count / do basic maths]

from her studies.

Curriculum reform is often done for

3 The report contains some interesting

on how best to prepare for exams.

political reasons rather than for good educational ones.

4 There were two

students in my class at university, but most of us were just 19.

[changes to what is covered in the national syllabus = plan of what is to be studied]

5 Katia wouldn’t have been able to go to university if her grandparents hadn’t paid her tuition Nowadays, lifelong/continuing education is an issue, and creating opportunities for mature students for her.

is important. [education for all ages] [adult students older than the average student]

6 Most undergraduates need to take out a student

to cover their costs while they

Special needs education is expensive because class sizes need to be small or one-to-one. [education for study for a degree.

children who cannot learn in the normal way, because they have some disability] [one teacher and one pupil, not a group]

7 Primary schools usually spend a lot of time on the

Rs.

Children are unhappy at school if there is a lot of bullying. [threatening behaviour]

8 At university I was lucky enough to have a lot of

tutorials, just me and the tutor!

Some headteachers complain that getting to grips with constant new government guidelines on what schools should be doing is a distraction from what they ought to be focusing on. [advice (often official) on how something should be done] [takes attention away]

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

11





3 Applying for a job

A

A job ad

1 if you have a passion for something, you like

it very much

2 a positive word for something which is

exciting and diff icult

FDR BANK Careers Branches About Us Contact 3 if an environment is fast-paced, things happen quickly there

Customer Service Assistant

4 available jobs

5 if you report to someone, he/she is your boss

Do you have excellent communication skills and a genuine passion for1 customer 6

service? Are you looking for a challenging2 role within a fast-paced3 working experience of this type of job from before

environment?

7 all the training you need

FDR Bank has several new openings4 for Customer Service Assistants. Reporting 8 job

to5 the Customer Service Manager, you will be responsible for dealing with customer 9 opportunities for promotion and career enquiries on the phone and via email. No previous experience6 is necessary development

as full training7 will be given. The post8 offers excellent career prospects9 to 10

candidates who demonstrate leadership qualities10 as we are keen to promote and the ability to lead a group

develop talent within the company.

11 as good as, or better than, other salaries for

We offer a competitive salary11 and an attractive benefi ts package12 including similar jobs

pension, healthcare plan and subsidised13 meals.

12 all the extra benefits that a company off ers

If this sounds like the job for you, then click here to fi ll in the online application (as well as a salary)

form, including details of your salary expectations.

13 partly paid for by the company

B

A cover letter

You want your application to stand out [be better than others], so you 1 a letter sent with a job

should include a clear, well-written cover letter1 which highlights key application (also called a

points from your CV. Here is a letter sent with the application for the job covering letter)

in A above.

2 how you start a letter

when you do not know the

name of the person you

Be sure to

are writing to

Dear Sir or Madam2

3

specify the

practical, direct (not

Please fi nd attached my CV in support of

job you are

theoretical)

my application for the position of Customer

4

Mention

applying for at

area of business or activity

any studies

Service Assistant. I have just completed my

5

the beginning

dealing directly with

or training

degree in Business Studies and am keen to

of the letter.

customers

courses you

gain hands-on3 experience in this area.

6 a person who is good at

have done

During my course I chose to study several

working with others

which are

7

modules on banking and fi nance, as I have

experience of managing

relevant to

other people

always been interested in working in this

It is important

[connected to]

8

to mention

how you finish a letter

fi eld4. In addition, I have worked as a part-

the role.

when you do not know the

time sales assistant in a large department

any relevant

name of the person you

store for the last two years. This has given

experience

are writing to

me valuable customer-facing5 experience, as

you have, to

If you have

well as developing good communication skills

show your

previous

both with customers and the rest of the

suitability for

managerial

team. I am a team player6 and I am keen

the role. If you

experience,

can, provide

you can say ‘In

to develop my career and gain managerial

examples of

my previous

experience7 in the future.

specifi c projects

role as (Sales

Thank you for taking the time to consider

you have

Manager), I

this application and I look forward to

carried out.

led a team of

hearing from you.

[done]

(four people).’

Yours faithfully8

Rebecca White

12

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

Exercises

3.1 Match the two parts of these business collocations from A and B.

1 healthcare



a faithfully

2 team





b prospects

3 Yours





c plan

4 competitive



d a team

5 challenging



e application

6 communication



f role

7 online



g letter

8 lead





h player

9 career



i skills

10 cover



j salary

3.2 Replace the underlined words with a word or phrase from A or B with a similar meaning.

1 You don’t need to have done this job before.

2 As part of my new job, I get meals partly paid for by the company.

3 It’s really important to make your application look different from all the others.

4 Working in the factory over the summer gave me some direct experience of manufacturing.

5 I’m hoping to work in the area of automotive manufacturing.

6 Prism Consulting has a number of positions available for graduates.

7 The ad said the company will provide all the training you need.

8 You should only apply for the job if you have led a team before.

9 The salary isn’t great, but they offer an attractive set of other advantages.

3.3 Look at A and B. Fill the gaps in these sentences, using a word from the box and a suitable preposition.

carried passion relevant reported role suitable support

1 I am sending my CV in

my application for the position of sales team leader.

2 I have a

sales.

3 Jakob’s experience is more

the job than Sylvana’s.

4 In my previous

Sales Representative, I

the Sales Manager.

5 While working as a Customer Service Assistant, I also

some research projects for the

marketing department.

6 He only has 6 months’ experience as a trainee. I don’t think that makes him the job

of quality manager.

3.4 Answer these questions.

1 What do we call a job which deals directly with the customers?

2 How can we describe someone who works well with other people?

3 How should you start a letter to someone whose name you don’t know?

4 What four other words can be used instead of ‘job’ in an advertisement?

5 How can we describe a working environment which is busy and rapidly changing?

3.5

Over to you

Find a job ad that you are interested in and write an example cover letter in English.

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

13



4 Job interviews

A

Preparing for interviews

When companies are recruiting1, they often have a set of criteria2 (e.g. three years of experience in the field, or a degree in a relevant area) which they use to find the most suitable candidates. If you are shortlisted3 for an interview, make sure you do your homework first: find out as much as you can about the company, its products, markets, competitors, etc.

If you can, ask a friend to do a trial run4 with you. This will help boost5 your confidence.

The interview may be conducted by a panel [a group of people], probably including your future line manager6. Don’t forget to make eye contact with all the interviewers while you are talking.

As you arrive for the interview, body language7 is important. Give a firm handshake and speak up8. This will help to create a good first impression.

1 hiring (new staff) 2 requirements you use to make a decision 3 selected from a larger group 4 a practice of something new 5 improve or increase 6 the person who is directly responsible for your work 7 physical movements which show how you are feeling 8 speak (more) loudly and clearly B

During an interview

These are examples of things that might be said at a job interview.

A: So, can you talk us through1 your CV?

B: Well, I studied Engineering and then took a job as a trainee2 at F3

Telecom.

A: I’d like to ask about opportunities for professional development3.

B: We have a very good in-house4 training programme for new recruits5.

1 tell us about in more detail 2 a person

Can you give us an example of how you’ve worked well under pressure?

who is learning a new job 3 training given

to employees to increase their knowledge or

How would your colleagues / your supervisor6 describe you?

skills 4 within the company 5 people who

I’m keen to take on7 more responsibility.

have just joined (the company) 6 the person

who checks your work 7 start to have 8 find

someone to do the job 9 time you need to

A: We’re looking to fill the post8 fairly quickly. If you are successful, how soon could you start?

work in your job after you have officially told the

company you are leaving

B: The notice period9 on my present job is just two weeks, so I could start very soon.

C

A job offer

Reply Forward

Dear Mr Malton,

Thank you for attending the interview last week. We very much enjoyed meeting you. We are delighted to offer you the position of Trainee Programmer. We believe your qualifications and experience will be an ideal fit for1 the job.

Please review the attached document outlining2 your salary, benefits (including paid leave3) and reporting structure4, and sign where indicated. Return the document within five business days. Once we have received the paperwork, we will contact you to arrange your start date.

We look forward to welcoming you as part of our team.

Kind regards

Melanie Stephens

1 very suitable for



3 time off you are paid for, such as holiday or parental leave

2 giving an overview of



4 company structure and who you report to

14

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

Exercises

4.1 Look at A and fill in the tips for a successful interview.

1 Before the interview,

your

: find out as much as you can about the

company and prepare answers to common interview questions.

2 If you can, do a

to practise how you will answer the interview questions.

3 You need to create a good

with the interviewers. Dress smartly and professionally.

4 Remember that your

also plays an important part. Don’t forget to smile! This will

make you seem more friendly, and might actually

your confidence too.

5 Make sure you greet your interviewer with a

. Make

when you talk to

them – look at them directly.

6 During the interview, describe all your relevant education and experience to show how you fulfil all the

for the job.

4.2 Choose the correct word from A and B to complete the sentences.

1 I’m afraid you’ll have to speak up / eye up / head up. I can hardly hear what you’re saying.

2 We are taking / recruiting / searching people for our new branch in the city centre.

3 If we can’t fill / fulfil / supply the post internally, we’ll have to advertise externally.

4 If I get the new job, I will have to take up / over / on more responsibility, but I will get a salary increase.

5 I don’t like working under pressure / under stress / by force. I end up making mistakes.

6 As part of the programme of reporting structure / professional development / notice period, we would like to invite you to a session on project management.

4.3 Rewrite the following sentences using expressions from A, B and C.

1 Could you tell us about your previous experience in this field?

2 I think we should give the job to Ruth. She seems perfectly suited to the team.

3 Employees are entitled to 30 days’ holiday.

4 The group of interviewers will include your future line manager.

5 They just called me to say I have been chosen (as one of the best candidates) for an interview.

4.4 Look at B and C opposite. There is one mistake in each of these sentences.

Correct the mistakes.

1 Please find attached a document overviewing your working conditions.

2 In some companies the leaving period can be as much as six months.

3 I’m going to be working as a superior, in charge of a team of 4 people.

4 The company doesn’t do any in-office training. It’s all done externally.

5 My begin date for the new job is 1 July.

6 I’m a trainer accountant. I haven’t passed my qualifying exams yet.

4.5

Over to you

• What do you do before a stressful situation to boost your confidence?

• Would you rather have a lot of paid leave or a higher salary?

• Do you work better under pressure? Or do you prefer to have more time?

• Do you enjoy taking on extra responsibility? Or do you find it stressful?

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

15





5 At work: colleagues and routines

A

Colleagues

Philip is my opposite number1 in

1 has the same position / does the same job as me

the company’s New York office. We

2 way of communicating and working together

have a good working relationship2

3 working together to achieve shared goals

and there’s a lot of day-to-

4 more formal equivalent of opposite number

day collaboration3. Having a

5 /ræˈpɔː/ communication/relationship

counterpart4 like Philip in another branch is a great

6 make decisions without being told what to do

support. Last month we got a new boss, who quickly

7 /ˌhaɪəˈrɑːkɪkəl/ has a structure with important

established a good rapport5 with everyone. She

and less important people

8

likes us to take the initiative6. The company is very

a system where some people have the right to get

hierarchical7; there’s a pecking order8 for everything.

benefits/promotions before others

9

I do a job-share9 with a woman called Rose, which suits

an agreement where two people each share the

same job

us as we each have childcare responsibilities. My office

10 a policy of sharing desks in an office, so people

uses a hot-desking10 system, so I sit in a different place sit at whichever desk is free on a particular day

every day. I socialise with my workmates11 outside of

11 colleagues you are friendly with (especially in

work, but we try not to talk shop12 on those occasions.

non-professional occupations); informal

12 talk about work; informal

B

During the day (different work patterns)

I do fairly mundane1 tasks. Occasionally I have to meet a deadline2 or they need someone to volunteer3 for something. Then the job is more rewarding4 and stimulating5. Sometimes I have a heavy workload6 but at other times it can be quite light.

1 ordinary, not interesting 2 have something finished by a fixed day or time 3 offer to do something without being asked or told to do it 4 making you feel satisfied that you have done something important or useful, or done something well 5 encouraging new ideas or new thinking 6 amount of work I have to do I start work at my machine at seven o’clock when I’m on the day shift. The job’s mechanical1 and repetitive2. All I ever think about is knocking off3 at three o’clock.

The shift I hate most is the night shift. I start at ten and work till six in the morning.

It’s a bit monotonous4. It’s not a satisfying5 job – I feel I need something a bit more challenging6.

1 you don’t have to think about what you are doing 2 the same thing is repeated every day 3 finishing work; informal 4 boring because it never changes 5 (does not) make me feel pleased by providing what I need or want 6 that tests my ability or determination I have a pretty glamorous1 job. I’m a pilot. But the hours are irregular and anti-social2.

I’m not stuck behind a desk3, but long-haul flights can be a bit mind-numbing4; most of the time the plane just flies itself. We work to very tight schedules5. But I shouldn’t complain. I feel sorry for people who are stuck in a rut6 or who are in dead-end7 jobs.

1 very exciting, which everyone admires 2 do not enable one to have a normal social life 3 sitting at a desk all day; informal 4 extremely boring 5 very strict or severely limited timetables 6 stuck/trapped in a job they can’t escape from 7 with no prospects of promotion I started off as a technician1. After retraining, I worked for a software company, and later I went in with2 a friend and we formed our own software company as a start-up3 in 2009, so now I’m self-employed. My husband is freelance4: he works for several different companies as and when they need work done – he’s a computer programmer5.

1 person whose job involves practical work with scientific or electrical equipment 2 formed a business partnership with 3 a small business that has just started 4 or works freelance 5 someone who writes computer programs

16

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced





Exercises

5.1 Correct seven mistakes in this paragraph.

REAL WORKERS, REAL STORIES

more stories | about

I’m a tecnician in a factory. I think I have a good work relationship with my colleagues. I tried to establish a good report with them from the very beginning. The person I like most is my opposite member in our offi ce in Paris. My boss likes me to make the initiative. Generally, when I socialise with my jobmates outside of work, we try not to talk about shop, but it’s not easy and sometimes we have a good gossip about colleagues and events at work.

5.2 Match the left and right-hand columns to make pairs of sentences.

1 We oft en work together.

a There are several levels of management.

2 The firm’s rather hierarchical.

b Deadlines have to be met.

3 Peter’s my counterpart.

c It’s a job-share.

4 We work to a tight schedule.

d Collaboration is a good thing.

5 I don’t think I’ll be promoted before her.

e We do the same job but he’s based in Rome.

6 Jess and I work half-and-half.

f There’s a strict pecking order in the company.

5.3 Use words and phrases from the opposite page to complete these sentences.

1 A good friend suggested we set up a small company together, so I her and we

formed a

in 2012.

2 I’m really tired; I’ve had a very heavy

recently.

3 I don’t want an off ice job. I don’t want to spend all day stuck

.

4 I’d hate to feel trapped in my job and to be stuck in

.

5 I work for diff erent companies at diff erent times as it suits me. I’m

.

6 I used to work for someone else, but now I’m my own boss; I’m

.

7 I stopped working in the hamburger restaurant. It was such a dead

.

8 When I was working in the factory, all I could think of all day was the moment when I could knock

.

9 Being a hospital nurse is a good job, but you can’t go out much with friends. The hours are a bit

. ( two possible answers)

10

I find

annoying, because it means I don't have my own desk where I can keep things at work.

5.4 Choose adjectives from the box to describe the jobs below. You can use more than one for each job. Add other adjectives of your own.

glamorous stimulating repetitive stressful monotonous varied mechanical mundane challenging mind-numbing rewarding

1 assembly-line worker in a car factory

6 lifeguard on a beach

2 supermarket shelf stacker

7 receptionist at a dentist’s

3 public relations off icer in a multinational company

8 private detective

4 bodyguard to a celebrity

9 refuse collector in a city

5 surgeon

10 night-security guard

5.5

Over to you

Write down words from this unit that relate to your job, or to a job you would like to do in the future.

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

17

6 At work: job satisfaction

A

Aspects of job satisfaction

What does job satisfaction mean? [a feeling that your job is worth doing and fulfils you] Is it just having a pleasant workplace or is it more than that? [the place where you work] Can a run-of-the-mill job be satisfying? [ordinary, not special or exciting]

Some people are prepared to put up with a stressful or unpleasant job if it means short-term financial reward. [immediate; opp. = long-term] [money gained]

Staff morale has been very low since the company announced a freeze on pay rises. [amount of confidence felt by a person or group]

Our new manager is very keen to encourage teamwork to help us solve problems. [working together for a common purpose]

Is job stability more motivating than an exciting, high-risk career? [not likely to change]

After working in the fast-moving fashion industry for six years, Sam has decided to look for a career with a better work–life balance. [developing or changing very quickly] [the amount of time spent working compared to the amount of time spent doing things you enjoy]

Daniel’s job in a dynamic new company is often challenging but exciting. [continuously developing]

Chloe is demotivated in her current job following recent changes in the finance sector. [feeling less enthusiastic about work] She is looking to work in / seeking a career in something more creative, like marketing.

Language help

The text has some words with similar meanings connected to work. It is a good idea to learn them in pairs, e.g. fast-moving and dynamic (industry/profession), seeking a career in …

and looking to work in … . (Note: we say look to, meaning consider or plan, NOT look for.) B

Expressions connected with working life

In many countries, women are allowed maternity leave, and men paternity leave, if they’re having a baby. If they adopt a child, they may have a right to adoption leave. [time away from work to prepare for and look after a new baby / adopted child]

What perks ( informal) / (extra) benefits ( formal) do you get in your job? [extra things apart from salary, e.g. a car, health insurance]

What’s your holiday entitlement? I get four weeks a year. [number of days you have the right to take as holiday]

Do you get regular salary increments each year? [increases/rises; formal] Do you get performance-related pay rises? [depending on how well you do your job] Do you get an annual bonus? [extra money paid once a year, usually based on good performance]

Most people think they are overworked and underpaid. (often said together as an informal, humorous fixed expression)

Because of the recession, the company announced that there would have to be voluntary/

compulsory redundancies. [people losing their jobs, by offering to do so / having no choice]

During the strike, the airport managed to continue running with a skeleton staff of volunteers.

[the minimum number of workers needed to keep operating]

The people on the interview panel at the last job I applied for were so unfriendly that I got very nervous. [the group of people interviewing someone for a job]

18

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

Exercises

6.1 Rewrite these sentences by using words and phrases from the opposite page instead of the underlined words.

1 Do you enjoy working as part of a team?

2 I don’t think that earning a lot of money is the key to job satisfaction.

3 Would you feel nervous giving a presentation to a group of people at interview?

4 Sales staff are often paid extra money each year when they perform well.

6.2 Find expressions on the opposite page which mean the opposite of the underlined words or phrases.

1 a very unusual, exciting job

6 a full staff of workers

2 a person who is highly motivated

7 someone who has a light workload and is paid

3 a rather static and slow-moving profession

a lot

4 a drop in salary

8 an automatic pay rise each year

5 compulsory redundancy

6.3 Choose the best word or phrase to complete each sentence.

1 Rafael has done the same job for the last fifteen years and his job will be secure until he retires. For Rafael, job stability / job satisfaction is very important.

2 Kate has a good workplace / work–life balance. She never works late and she often finds time to relax with her family or go to the cinema in the evening.

3 After graduating from Manchester University, Dan started work in the run-of-the-mil / fast-moving film industry.

4 Amy joined the law firm for the bonus / long-term career prospects they offered. It would be hard work for the first few years, but she could later become a senior partner.

6.4 Each sentence in these pairs of sentences contains a mistake. Correct them.

1 She was on mother leave for three months after the birth of her baby. Then her husband took father leave for three months.

2 Sarah has been on adapted leave since she and Brian welcomed their new two-year old child into their family. Brian took volunteer redundancy from his job, which means he is at home too.

3 My holiday titlement is four weeks a year. The atmosphere in my place for work is very pleasant, so I’m happy.

4 When I applied for the job, I was looking for join a dynamic team. However, the interview jury gave an impression of complete boredom and lack of interest.

5 The factory had to operate with a skeletal staff during the economic crisis. There had been a large number of compulsive redundancies.

6 I get some good parks in my new job. I get a company car and free health security.

6.5

Over to you

• What does job satisfaction mean to you?

• Do you think financial reward is more important than job stability or work–life balance?

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

19

7 At work: careers

A

A career in sales

When Carl left school, he took the first job he was offered – in telesales1. He thought

telemarketing2 sounded quite glamorous but soon found that most of the people he phoned hated cold calling3 and put the phone down when he tried the hard sell4. However, he persevered and found he became quite skilled at persuading customers to part with their money5. He then moved into a job on a TV shopping channel6, where he specialised in selling merchandise7 for the leisure market. He did so well at this that he set up his own sportswear company and hasn’t looked back8 since.

1 + 2 selling or marketing goods and services by phone

5 spend money

3 phoning people who have not requested a call in

6 a TV channel devoted to selling products

order to try to sell them something

7 products that are bought and sold

4 attempt to sell something by being very forceful or

8 has moved forward successfully

persuasive

B

Buying and selling

A person’s purchasing power is the ability they have to buy goods, i.e. the amount of money they have available.

If you shop around, you try different companies or shops to see which offers best value.

If you want to buy something, you need to find a shop that stocks it. [keeps a supply of it = keeps it in stock]

If you trade something up, usually a car or a house, you buy one that is of higher value than the one you had before. ( opp. = trade down)

People sometimes make a purchasing decision based on brand loyalty. [confidence in that particular make and a tendency always to choose it]

Supermarkets sometimes sell an item for less than it costs them in order to attract a lot of people into the shop, where they will also buy more profitable items – the item being sold at a low price is called a loss leader.

For a company to sell its products, it has to price them appropriately. [give them a price]

If a company finds a niche market, it finds a specialised group of customers with particular interests that that company can meet.

If an item is said to come/go under the hammer, it is sold at an auction. [sale of goods or property where people make gradually increasing bids and the item is then sold to the highest bidder]

C

A career in business

A few years ago Tina started her own software development business, which turned out to be very lucrative1. However, she got increasingly irritated by all the red tape2 involved in the administration3 of a business and when a larger company contacted her with a proposition4, suggesting a takeover5, she was interested. At first, the two companies could not agree on all the details of the agreement but they managed to reach a compromise6 and hammer out a deal7

without too much delay. In many ways Tina was sad that her company had been swallowed up8

but she has used the money raised by the sale of her capital assets9 to invest in10 a business start-up11: an online holiday property letting agency12.

1 producing a lot of money

7 talk in detail until a business agreement is made

2 bureaucracy (negative)

8 taken over by a larger company

3 organisation and arrangement of operations

9 buildings and machines owned by a company

4 formal offer

10 put money into

5 agreement in which one company takes control of

11 new company

another one (compare with merger, in which two

12 a business organising the rental of holiday houses

companies join together to become one company)

and flats

6 come to an agreement in which both sides reduce

their demands a little

20

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

Exercises

7.1 Match the two parts of these business collocations from the opposite page.

1 loss



a agency

2 capital



b channel

3 purchasing



c leader

4 shopping



d tape

5 hard



e power

6 letting



f loyalty

7 brand



g assets

8 niche



h sell

9 red



i market

7.2 Look at A and B opposite. Fill the gaps in these sentences.

1 A world-famous painting will go

the hammer in London tomorrow.

2 It’s a sensible idea to shop

a bit before buying a computer.

3 Sally made the right decision when she quit her old job and set up her own business – she hasn’t looked

since the day it opened.

4 I don’t mind trying a hard sell on a person who has already expressed an interest in our products, but I hate

calling.

5 It can be quite hard to persuade my dad to

with his money.

6 I’m going to make a

for the dining table that is up for auction tomorrow.

7 My current job is in

. I spend all the day on the phone.

8 They produce special clothes for people who practise yoga and have really cornered this market.

9 The shop I went to didn’t

the printer I wanted so I’m going to order it online.

7.3 Replace the underlined words with a word or phrase from C with a similar meaning.

1 As their business interests were quite different, it took them a long time to come to an agreement.

2 If you want to go into the import and export business, you had better be prepared for a lot of bureaucracy.

3 At the moment they are discussing the possibility of buying up another company.

4 Sportswear is a very profitable business to be in at the moment.

5 Banks will only lend a new business money if they have a realistic business plan.

6 A number of small companies have been taken over by that huge multinational in the last six months.

7 Hassan has made a rather interesting suggestion about setting up a business together.

8 Chloe is much better at the creative side of business than the organisation involved in running a company.

7.4 Choose the best word to complete each sentence.

1 I hope we’ll be able to keep / reach a compromise when we meet tomorrow.

2 I think those new games consoles are priced / purchased too high at the moment.

3 The shops are hoping to sell a lot of capital assets / merchandise connected with the royal wedding.

4 My sports car was so expensive to run that I decided to trade it down / up for something much cheaper.

5 Helga has never looked back / out since she started her own business ten years ago.

6 There’s a lot of loss leader / red tape involved in setting up a new business.

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

21





Describing people: positive and

8 negative qualities

A

Character and personality

Chinese astrology organises years into cycles of 12, and asserts that the year you are born in aff ects your character. Each year is named aft er an animal.

animal

year

characteristics

1 using situations for own benefit

2

RAT

systematic, careful

1972, 1984,

imaginative, charming, generous, quick-

3

1996, 2008

tempered, opportunistic1

too patriotic

4 become too excited and lose control

BUFFALO

5

1973, 1985,

conservative, methodical2, conscientious,

ready to help

6

1997, 2009

chauvinistic3, a born leader

not caring about serious things

7 not confident, uncertain about your own

TIGER

abilities

1974, 1986,

sensitive, emotional, tends to get carried

8 someone who is not satisfied if things are

1998, 2010

away4, stubborn, rebellious, courageous

not 100% perfect

9 inclined to say things that upset or off end

RABBIT

1975, 1987,

aff ectionate, obliging5, sentimental,

people

1999, 2011

superficial6, oft en insecure7

10 understanding instinctively

DRAGON

11

1976, 1988,

fun-loving, popular, a perfectionist8,

hard-working

12

2000, 2012

gift ed, may sometimes be tactless9

calm, does not easily become excited or

angry

SNAKE

1977, 1989,

13 personality that attracts people to you

2001, 2013

charming, intuitive10, stingy

14 not trusting, suspicious of others

HORSE

1978, 1990,

diligent11, independent, placid12,

15 having good judgement

2002, 2014

outgoing, can be selfish and cunning

16 gives help or encouragement

GOAT

17

1979, 1991,

elegant, artistic, always ready to complain,

spends too much money or uses too much

2003, 2015

over-anxious

of something

18 practical and sensible

MONKEY

1980, 1992,

witty, magnetic personality13, good

19 thinking of others rather than yourself

2004, 2016

company, can be distrustful14

20 gloomy

ROOSTER

21

1981, 1993,

industrious, shrewd15, supportive16,

inclined to speak in a severe and critical way

2005, 2017

decisive, extravagant17

22 without enough experience of life, trusting

DOG

too easily

1982, 1994,

down-to-earth18, altruistic19, morose20,

2006, 2018

sharp-tongued21

PIG

1983, 1995,

intellectual, tolerant, naive22, oft en

2007, 2019

materialistic

B

Positive and negative associations

Charming, generous – is that how you think of yourself? Selfish, cunning – that can’t be me!

Some words in the chart above have positive associations, others negative ones. Here are some words from the chart, together with other words that share some aspects of their meaning. The table shows which have positive and which have negative associations.

positive

negative

positive

negative

generous, unstinting

extravagant, immoderate

shrewd, astute

cunning, sly

resolute, dogged

stubborn, obstinate

sober, serious

morose, sullen

thrift y, frugal

stingy, parsimonious

witty, pithy

brusque, terse

diligent, industrious

work-obsessed, (a)

tolerant, open-minded

unprincipled,

workaholic (noun)

unscrupulous

idealistic, principled

dogmatic, inflexible

chatty, talkative

verbose, garrulous

22

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced





Exercises

8.1 Read the comments and then answer the questions.

I wish Tatyana would calm

Tom thinks his country is better

down and not get so over-

than any other country and

excited about things.

doesn’t listen to reason.

Alice can always be relied

upon to make the right

Sophie is always so calm.

decision.

Harry is such a practical

Andrey has a tendency to say

and sensible person.

things that upset people.

1 Who is placid?

3 Who tends to get carried away?

5 Who is shrewd?

2 Who is down-to-earth?

4 Who is often tactless?

6 Who is chauvinistic?

8.2 Which colleagues does the speaker have a positive opinion of and which a negative one?

‘Ellie, my boss, is very astute and she can be very witty, but I find her assistant, David, a bit sullen and obstinate. Julia, who I sit next to, is a bit stingy and extremely work-obsessed. I do a lot of work with Marco, who’s very obliging, supportive and tolerant.’

8.3 Fill the gaps with words from the opposite page. You are given the first letter(s) and clues to the meaning in brackets.

1 He’s rather o

. He always tries to use situations to his own advantage. (devious) 2 She has an i

approach to life rather than a rational one. (instinctive)

3 My father was a somewhat quick-tempered and m

sort of person. (gloomy)

4 He was a very altruistic person, almost to the point of being n

. (too trusting)

5 Aisha has a m

personality. Everyone is drawn to her. (attractive)

6 Rob is a very conscientious and m

worker. (careful, systematic)

7 I find Eva a bit b

and rude. (speaks in a quick and rude way)

8 She’s fun-loving but she can be a bit s

at times. (doesn’t care about serious things)

9 I think Max is i

. (doesn’t have much confidence, not really sure of himself)



10 I’m always happy to go out for a meal with Kerstin. She’s such g c

.

(pleasant and entertaining to spend time with)

1 1 She was very c

in speaking out against corruption. (brave, unafraid to speak or act) 12 Owen’s a p

. He’s never happy if he doesn’t get an A-grade in every test.

8.4 Find adjectives on the opposite page related to these abstract nouns.

1 altruism

4 placidity

7 distrust

10 unscrupulousness

2 parsimony

5 industriousness

8 terseness

3 diligence

6 rebellion

9 naivety

8.5 The adjectives you found in the exercise above are more common in formal contexts.

Give a synonym for each word that would be more likely to be used in informal situations (e.g. a friendly, informal conversation). Use a dictionary if necessary.

8.6

Over to you

Which adjectives from this unit could you use to describe you, your friends and your family members?

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

23

Describing people: appearance and

9 mannerisms

A

Adjectives connected with size, weight and general appearance

She introduced me to a tall, slender woman who looked very serious. [thin in an attractive way]

He was too scrawny to be a football player. [unattractively thin and bony-looking]

A lanky teenager walked in. [very tall and thin, and usually moving awkwardly]

A gangling/gangly youth approached him. [tall, with long, thin arms and legs and rather awkward movements; often used of men and boys]

Recent studies show that an increasing number of children are obese. [very fat, in an unhealthy way]

She’s the rather stout woman wearing glasses over there. [with a quite large, solid body; used of men and women]

My grandfather was a stocky man with big hands and broad shoulders. [short and with a body that is wide across the shoulders and chest]

B

Aspects of appearance and complexion

Reply Forward

Hi Jessica,

Guess who I bumped into the other day? Our old college mate, Rob Parsons! First thing I noticed was he’s really bulked up1 (he used to be so lean2 and wiry 3, didn’t he?) but also that he still looks so unkempt4. His sister was always the opposite – never a hair out of place5 and immaculate6 clothes, remember? But they were different in appearance too, weren’t they? He has a rather swarthy7 complexion: his sister’s was more sallow8.

I must say he looked a bit haggard9 and exhausted too. He’s probably working too hard. Anyway, how are things with you?

Beth

1 increased in body size, especially by gaining

5 always well-dressed, neat and smart-looking

more muscle

6 in perfect condition, smart

2 thin and healthy 3 thin but strong

7 dark-coloured, used about skin

4 untidy, scruffy (the opposite would be smart or

8 yellowish

neat; ‘kempt’ does not exist)

9 his face looked ill and tired

C

Facial expression

A: What are you grinning at? [giving a big smile]

B: You’ve got ice cream on your nose – it looks so funny!

Look at those models pouting for the photographers! [positioning their lips in an attractive way]

She said if her daughter doesn’t get what she wants, she pouts for the rest of the day. [positions her lips in a look of annoyance]

You don’t have to grimace every time I eat raw garlic. I happen to think it’s delicious. [make an expression of pain or strong dislike]

I arrived late and she just scowled at me. [gave a bad-tempered, angry look]

He was leering at us. I felt very uncomfortable and wanted to leave. [looking in an unpleasant, sexually interested way]

D

Mannerisms and actions

I asked him for advice but he just shrugged his shoulders. [lifted his shoulders up and down to show he didn’t know or couldn’t answer]

He folded his arms and crossed his legs and waited for me to speak. [crossed one arm over the other close to his body] [crossed one leg over the other while sitting]

He sat there twitching nervously as he waited for his interview. [suddenly making small movements]

She bites her nails all the time. It drives me crazy!

She clenched her fist and told him to get out of the room at once. [closed her hand tightly because of anger]

He just kept tapping/drumming his fingers on the table, looking impatient. [made quick, light hitting movements]

24

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced





Exercises

9.1 Rewrite these sentences using words from A opposite instead of the underlined words.

1 She looks as if she needs a good meal; her body is so thin and bony.

2 Martha and David are both rather tall and thin individuals.

3 Being extremely fat can have health risks.

4 A very tall, thin, bony, awkward-looking boy carried our bags for us.

5 Her new silk dress suited her thin frame.

6 A short man with broad shoulders offered to lift the stone so we could look underneath.

7 That solid-looking woman on the left of the photo is Charlie’s wife.

9.2 Fill in the gaps in the sentences using words from B opposite.

1 Finn looked really

after two weeks of camping – his clothes were dirty and his hair

was a mess!

2 Leah always looks amazing – she never has a

out of place!

3 Alex has

a lot – must be all that time he spends at the gym lifting weights!

4 Dan hasn’t slept for three days – he looks really tired and

!

9.3 What are these people doing?

1

He’s folding his arms.

2



3

4



5



6

9.4 Answer these questions. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1 The verb to pout has two meanings on the opposite page. What are they?

2 If someone scowls at you, how are they probably feeling?

3 What is the difference between a swarthy complexion and a sallow complexion?

4 When would you clench your fist?

5 When do people normally shrug their shoulders?

6 What might you do with your fingers on a table if you were nervous or impatient?

7 In what situations do people typically (a) fold their arms, (b) cross their legs?

8 If someone is ‘lean and wiry’, which of these adjectives are true of them: thin, fat, healthy, weak, ill-looking, strong?

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

25

Describing people: personality and

10 character traits

A

Adjectives to describe people’s personality or behaviour

word

meaning

example

impetuous

acts on a sudden idea without

She’s so impetuous; I wish she would consider

thinking first (often negative)

things before acting.

impulsive

similar to impetuous, but can be

His impulsive generosity led him to give money to

used in a more positive way

anyone who asked for help.

effusive

gives exaggerated expression of

She always gives me such an effusive welcome

pleasure, praise or gratitude

when I visit her.

excitable

easily excited by things

He’s a very excitable child; he needs to calm down.

pushy

always selfishly promoting your

She’s so pushy; it’s typical of her to demand a pay

own position or interests; informal

rise for herself and not care about the rest of us.

self-conscious

nervous or uncomfortable

Freddie seemed self-conscious and uncomfortable

because you know what people

when he had to make the announcement at

think about you or your actions





the party.

well-balanced

calm and reasonable and showing The teacher said Maddy was a well-balanced child good judgement

who got on well at school.

taciturn

reserved or says very little

He was a bit taciturn when I first met him. He

/ˈtæsɪtɜːn/

(generally negative)

hardly said a word.

B

Sociability

Chloe’s such an introvert. Her brother Mark is so outgoing and is such an extrovert. Strange, isn’t it? [inward-looking and quiet] [energetic and friendly, finds it easy to be with others] [outward-looking, energetic and sociable]

Mr Rogers is such a diffident man. He seems to have quite low self-esteem. [lacks confidence] [has a low opinion of himself]

English people are traditionally thought of as rather reserved. [not immediately sociable]

Eva tends to be rather aloof. I don’t know if she’s just shy. [unfriendly and not sociable]

My aunt Annie can be very haughty and disdainful at times, but she’s lovely really. [unfriendly and thinks herself better than others] [does not believe others deserve respect]

I’ve always found Professor Mactoft very unapproachable, but his colleague Dr O’Daly is very approachable. [not easy to be sociable with or start a conversation with] [the opposite]

Natasha is very conceited and self-important, but Rachel is such a modest person. [thinks herself wonderful] [has an exaggerated sense of her importance] [prefers not to exaggerate her own qualities]

Joe is always so polite and respectful. I wish he would be more informal and just treat me as his equal. [treating someone well and politely, often with admiration]

C

Character traits

Arjen is a somewhat naive person; he thinks love can solve all the world’s problems. [/naɪˈiːv/ willing to believe simple things, perhaps because of inexperience]

Telephone salespeople often take advantage of gullible people. [easily deceived]

My father was a very conscientious man; he never took time off work unless he was really sick.

[/ˌkɒntʃiˈentʃəs/ always took his work very seriously]

She’s a restless individual. I don’t think she’ll ever settle down in a job. [not satisfied with what she is doing now and wanting something new]

You are so obstinate and pig-headed! Why don’t you listen when people give you advice? [unwilling to change, despite persuasion] [similar to obstinate but stronger; informal]

26

English Vocabulary in Use Advanced

Exercises

10.1 Answer these questions.

1 Why would people rather have an approachable teacher or boss than an unapproachable one?

2 What is a stronger and less formal way of saying obstinate?

3 If someone is diffident, do they have little or lots of self-confidence?

4 How could you describe a greeting from someone that showed exaggerated pleasure?

5 Do you think it would be easy or difficult to have a friendly conversation with a taciturn person?

6 Which tends to be more negative, impetuous or impulsive?

7 Which would most people rather be described as, conscientious or sel